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Showing 1 to 15 of 1,299 results Save | Export
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Keller, Nicole E.; Dunsmoor, Joseph E. – Learning & Memory, 2020
Counterconditioning (CC) is a form of retroactive interference that inhibits expression of learned behavior. But similar to extinction, CC can be a fairly weak and impermanent form of interference, and the original behavior is prone to relapse. Research on CC is limited, especially in humans, but prior studies suggest it is more effective than…
Descriptors: Conditioning, Fear, Memory, Learning Processes
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Sekeres, Melanie J.; Moscovitch, Morris; Grady, Cheryl L.; Sullens, D. Gregory; Winocur, Gordon – Learning & Memory, 2020
Conditioned fear memories that are context-specific shortly after conditioning generalize over time. We exposed rats to a context reminder 30 d after conditioning, which served to reinstate context-specificity, and investigated how this reminder alters retrieval-induced activity in the hippocampus and anterior cingulate cortex (aCC) relative to a…
Descriptors: Memory, Animals, Brain Hemisphere Functions, Conditioning
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Oruro, Enver Miguel; Pardo, Grace V. E.; Lucion, Aldo B.; Calcagnotto, Maria Elisa; Idiart, Marco A. P. – Learning & Memory, 2020
Studies have shown that neonate rodents exhibit high ability to learn a preference for novel odors associated with thermo-tactile stimuli that mimics maternal care. Artificial odors paired with vigorous strokes in rat pups younger than 10 postnatal days (P), but not older, rapidly induce an orientation-approximation behavior toward the conditioned…
Descriptors: Animal Behavior, Cytology, Learning Processes, Preferences
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Vazquez, Maribel; Frazier, Jessica H.; Reichel, Carmela M.; Peters, Jamie – Learning & Memory, 2020
Females are at higher risk for certain opioid addictive behaviors, but the influence of ovarian hormones is unknown. In our rat model of heroin self-administration, females exhibited higher relapse rates that correlated with rates of heroin seeking on the first extinction session. We administered estradiol alone, or in combination with…
Descriptors: Females, Narcotics, Addictive Behavior, Biochemistry
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Barker, Gareth Robert; Wong, Liang Fong; Uney, James B.; Warburton, Elizabeth C. – Learning & Memory, 2020
The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) is known to be critical for specific forms of long-term recognition memory, however the cellular mechanisms in the mPFC that underpin memory maintenance have not been well characterized. This study examined the importance of phosphorylation of cAMP responsive element binding protein (CREB) in the mPFC for…
Descriptors: Brain Hemisphere Functions, Long Term Memory, Recognition (Psychology), Spatial Ability
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Bolaram, Anudeep; Coe, Taylor E.; Power, John M.; Cheng, Dominic T. – Learning & Memory, 2020
The role of awareness in differential delay eyeblink conditioning (EBC) has been a topic of much debate. We tested the idea that awareness is required for differential delay EBC when two cues are perceptually similar. The present study manipulated frequencies of auditory conditioned stimuli (CS) to vary CS similarity in three groups of…
Descriptors: Eye Movements, Cues, Incidence, Auditory Stimuli
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Fujii, Satoshi; Yamazaki, Yoshihiko; Goto, Jun-ichi; Fujiwara, Hiroki; Mikoshiba, Katsuhiko – Learning & Memory, 2020
In CA1 neurons of guinea pig hippocampal slices, long-term potentiation (LTP) was induced in field excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) or population spikes (PSs) by the delivery of high-frequency stimulation (HFS, 100 pulses at 100 Hz) to CA1 synapses, and was reversed by the delivery of a train of low-frequency stimulation (LFS, 1000…
Descriptors: Brain, Animals, Brain Hemisphere Functions, Stimuli
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Haugland, Kamilla G.; Olberg, Anniken; Lande, Andreas; Kjelstrup, Kristen B.; Brun, Vegard H. – Learning & Memory, 2020
Growth hormone (GH) deficiency is associated with cognitive decline which occur both in normal aging and in endocrine disorders. Several brain areas express receptors for GH although their functional role is unclear. To determine how GH affects the capacity for learning and memory by specific actions in one of the key areas, the hippocampus, we…
Descriptors: Physiology, Aging (Individuals), Brain Hemisphere Functions, Learning
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Scott, Gavin A.; Liu, Max C.; Tahir, Nimra B.; Zabder, Nadine K.; Song, Yuanyi; Greba, Quentin; Howland, John G. – Learning & Memory, 2020
Working memory (WM), the capacity for short-term storage of small quantities of information for immediate use, is thought to depend on activity within the prefrontal cortex. Recent evidence indicates that the prefrontal neuronal activity supporting WM is driven by thalamocortical connections arising in mediodorsal thalamus (mdThal). However, the…
Descriptors: Role, Animals, Brain Hemisphere Functions, Short Term Memory
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Nieto, Javier; Mason, Tere A.; Bernal-Gamboa, Rodolfo; Uengoer, Metin – Learning & Memory, 2020
In two instrumental conditioning experiments with rats, we examined the impacts of acquisition and extinction cues on ABC renewal of instrumental behavior. Animals were reinforced with food for lever pressing in one context, followed by extinction of the response in a second one. Presentations of a brief tone accompanied extinction in Experiment 1…
Descriptors: Cues, Conditioning, Animals, Animal Behavior
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Nauer, Rachel K.; Schon, Karin; Stern, Chantal E. – Learning & Memory, 2020
With a rising aging population, it is important to develop behavioral tasks that assess and track cognitive decline, and to identify protective factors that promote healthy brain aging. Mnemonic discrimination tasks that rely on pattern separation mechanisms are a promising metric to detect subtle age-related memory impairments. Behavioral…
Descriptors: Mnemonics, Physical Fitness, Cognitive Ability, Aging (Individuals)
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Bjorni, Max; Rovero, Natalie G.; Yang, Elissa R.; Holmes, Andrew; Halladay, Lindsay R. – Learning & Memory, 2020
While results from many past studies have implicated the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) in mediating the expression of sustained negative affect, recent studies have highlighted a more complex role for BNST that includes aspects of fear learning in addition to defensive responding. As BNST is thought to encode ambiguous or…
Descriptors: Fear, Cues, Brain Hemisphere Functions, Learning Processes
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Moscarello, Justin M. – Learning & Memory, 2020
Signaled active avoidance (SAA) behavior requires the suppression of defensive reactions, such as freezing, that conflict with the avoidance response. The neural mechanisms of this inhibitory process are not well understood. Here, we demonstrate that ventromedial prefrontal cortex projections to the nucleus reuniens of the thalamus are recruited…
Descriptors: Brain Hemisphere Functions, Coping, Responses, Inhibition
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Liu, Zejun; Wang, Yujuan; Guo, Chunyan – Learning & Memory, 2020
It is widely accepted that associative recognition can be supported by familiarity through integrating more than two stimuli into a unit, but there are still three unsolved questions: (1) how unitization affects recollection-based associative recognition; (2) whether it is necessary to match the level of unitization (LOU) between original and…
Descriptors: Associative Learning, Recognition (Psychology), Familiarity, Correlation
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Zimmermann, Josua; Bach, Dominik R. – Learning & Memory, 2020
A reminder can render consolidated memory labile and susceptible to amnesic agents during a reconsolidation window. For the case of threat memory (also termed fear memory), it has been suggested that extinction training during this reconsolidation window has the same disruptive impact. This procedure could provide a powerful therapeutic principle…
Descriptors: Physiology, Responses, Conditioning, Eye Movements
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