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Bailey, Bill; Unwin, Lorna – Journal of Vocational Education and Training, 2008
In 1957, 12 years after the end of World War II, the Ministry of Education issued Circular 323 to promote the development of an element of "liberal studies" in courses offered by technical and further education (FE) colleges in England. This was perceived to be in some ways a peculiar or uncharacteristic development. However, it lasted…
Descriptors: Independent Study, Compulsory Education, Adult Education, Foreign Countries