NotesFAQContact Us
Search Tips
Back to results
Peer reviewed Peer reviewed
Direct linkDirect link
ERIC Number: EJ1232376
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2019-Dec
Pages: 32
Abstractor: As Provided
ISSN: ISSN-1052-5629
The Mirror and the Window: Making Implicit Perceptions of Leadership Explicit
Greenhalgh, Anne M.; Maxwell, Christopher I.
Journal of Management Education, v43 n6 p598-629 Dec 2019
Images of leadership serve as mirrors reflecting assumptions and as windows revealing possibilities. We take a visual and less common methodological approach and highlight particular images by way of a linguistic and stylistic analysis. The foundation of this study--an archive of 8,283 images and essays--is noteworthy, since it represents nearly the entire population of undergraduates at an elite business school over the past 16 years. Our analysis reveals the salient commonalities and subtle differences in male and female perceptions. On one hand, the most frequently posted male and female images of leadership are assertive and concerned about the welfare of others and combine stereotypical and archetypal masculine and feminine characteristics. The act of leadership is also transformational and empowering rather than transactional and directive. On the other hand, the qualities of leadership are value-centric for both male and female students; but males are more inclined to see hierarchy and agentic qualities, while females are more likely to see communal characteristics. Moreover, the vast majority of images is male, but female students put a greater emphasis on gender nonspecified subjects and are twice as likely as male students to identify the subject of leadership as "she."
SAGE Publications. 2455 Teller Road, Thousand Oaks, CA 91320. Tel: 800-818-7243; Tel: 805-499-9774; Fax: 800-583-2665; e-mail:; Web site:
Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Research
Education Level: Higher Education; Postsecondary Education
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A