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Arndt, Jana; Schüler, Anne; Scheiter, Katharina – Journal of Experimental Education, 2019
This study investigated whether text-picture integration is facilitated when text and pictures are presented simultaneously instead of sequentially. Participants memorized general and specific sentences and pictures. It was expected that due to text-picture integration, participants should falsely recognize specific versions of the sentences and…
Descriptors: Pictorial Stimuli, Memorization, Sentences, Recognition (Psychology)
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Chang, Wanchen; Pituch, Keenan A. – Journal of Experimental Education, 2019
When data for multiple outcomes are collected in a multilevel design, researchers can select a univariate or multivariate analysis to examine group-mean differences. When correlated outcomes are incomplete, a multivariate multilevel model (MVMM) may provide greater power than univariate multilevel models (MLMs). For a two-group multilevel design…
Descriptors: Hierarchical Linear Modeling, Multivariate Analysis, Research Problems, Error of Measurement
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Xiao, ZhiMin; Higgins, Steve; Kasim, Adetayo – Journal of Experimental Education, 2019
Lord's Paradox occurs when a continuous covariate is statistically controlled for and the relationship between a continuous outcome and group status indicator changes in both magnitude and direction. This phenomenon poses a challenge to the notion of evidence-based policy, where data are supposed to be self-evident. We examined 50 effect size…
Descriptors: Statistical Analysis, Decision Making, Research Methodology, Scores
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Singer Trakhman, Lauren M.; Alexander, Patricia A.; Berkowitz, Lisa E. – Journal of Experimental Education, 2019
This study explored the effects of processing texts in print or digitally on readers' comprehension, processing time, and calibration. Eighty-six undergraduates read print and digital versions of book excerpts about childhood ailments presented in counterbalanced order. Comprehension was tested at three levels (i.e., main idea, key points, and…
Descriptors: Reading Processes, Reading Comprehension, Undergraduate Students, Comparative Analysis
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Joo, Seang-Hwane; Ferron, John M.; Moeyaert, Mariola; Beretvas, S. Natasha; Van den Noortgate, Wim – Journal of Experimental Education, 2019
Multilevel modeling has been utilized for combining single-case experimental design (SCED) data assuming simple level-1 error structures. The purpose of this study is to compare various multilevel analysis approaches for handling potential complexity in the level-1 error structure within SCED data, including approaches assuming simple and complex…
Descriptors: Hierarchical Linear Modeling, Synthesis, Data Analysis, Accuracy
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Wong, Sarah Shi Hui; Ng, Gavin Jun Peng; Tempel, Tobias; Lim, Stephen Wee Hun – Journal of Experimental Education, 2019
The impact of retrieval practice on analogical-problem-solving performance was investigated using a complex, educationally relevant task. Participants studied a statistical hypothesis testing scenario and practiced recalling the material or repeatedly studied it. Participants then completed a final test either 5 minutes or 1 week later involving a…
Descriptors: Recall (Psychology), Logical Thinking, Problem Solving, Hypothesis Testing
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Burgueño, Rafael; Sicilia, Alvaro; Medina-Casaubón, Jesús; Alcaraz-Ibañez, Manuel; Lirola, María-Jesús – Journal of Experimental Education, 2019
Our objective was to test the factorial validity of the different versions (TSES-24, TSES-12, and TSES-11) of the Teacher's Sense of Efficacy Scale in Spanish preservice teachers'. The participants were 358 preservice teachers. The confirmatory factor analysis showed inadequate fit indexes for both TSES-24 and TSES-12 but adequate fit indexes for…
Descriptors: Psychometrics, Self Efficacy, Teacher Effectiveness, Spanish
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D'Attoma, Ida; Camillo, Furio; Clark, M. H. – Journal of Experimental Education, 2019
Propensity score (PS) adjustments have become popular methods used to improve estimates of treatment effects in quasi-experiments. Although researchers continue to develop PS methods, other procedures can also be effective in reducing selection bias. One of these uses clustering to create balanced groups. However, the success of this new method…
Descriptors: Statistical Bias, Regression (Statistics), Probability, Weighted Scores
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Leite, Walter L.; Aydin, Burak; Gurel, Sungur – Journal of Experimental Education, 2019
This Monte Carlo simulation study compares methods to estimate the effects of programs with multiple versions when assignment of individuals to program version is not random. These methods use generalized propensity scores, which are predicted probabilities of receiving a particular level of the treatment conditional on covariates, to remove…
Descriptors: Probability, Weighted Scores, Monte Carlo Methods, Statistical Bias
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Daumiller, Martin; Dresel, Markus – Journal of Experimental Education, 2019
Studying with digital media, learners often struggle because of inadequate self-regulation. Previous research presented clear evidence of metacognitive prompts being effective in supporting learning with digital media. This study examines the potential of motivational regulation prompts, which are assumed to additionally support self-regulated…
Descriptors: Metacognition, Cues, Student Motivation, Pretests Posttests
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Nicholson, Laura J.; Putwain, David W.; Nakhla, Ghada; Porter, Benjamin; Liversidge, Anthony; Reece, Monika – Journal of Experimental Education, 2019
A person-centered approach was employed to investigate how students' evaluation of perceived teacher utility value messages, i.e., fear appeals, as a threat and as a challenge, combined within individuals and how these combinations related to student engagement. Two studies were conducted with students in their final two years of secondary…
Descriptors: Teacher Student Relationship, Student Evaluation of Teacher Performance, Fear, High School Students
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Shieh, Gwowen – Journal of Experimental Education, 2019
The analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) is a useful statistical procedure that incorporates covariate features into the adjustment of treatment effects. The consequences of omitted prognostic covariates on the statistical inferences of ANCOVA are well documented in the literature. However, the corresponding influence on sample-size calculations for…
Descriptors: Sample Size, Statistical Analysis, Computation, Accuracy
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Lee, Jaekyung; Finn, Jeremy; Liu, Xiaoyan – Journal of Experimental Education, 2019
Through a synthesis of test publisher norms and national longitudinal data sets, this study provides new national norms of academic growth in K-12 reading and math to help reinterpret conventional effect sizes in time units. We propose "d'," a time-indexed-effect-size metric to estimate how long it would take for an "untreated"…
Descriptors: Effect Size, Reading Achievement, Mathematics Achievement, National Norms
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Waterbury, Glenn Thomas; DeMars, Christine E. – Journal of Experimental Education, 2019
There is a need for effect sizes that are readily interpretable by a broad audience. One index that might fill this need is [pi], which represents the proportion of scores in one group that exceed the mean of another group. The robustness of estimates of [pi] to violations of normality had not been explored. Using simulated data, three estimates…
Descriptors: Effect Size, Robustness (Statistics), Simulation, Research Methodology
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Buchanan, Erin M.; Valentine, Kathrene D.; Frizell, Michael L. – Journal of Experimental Education, 2019
Student retention rates are increasingly important in higher education. Higher education institutions have adopted various programs in the hopes of increasing graduation rates and grade point averages (GPAs). One of the most effective attempts at improvement has been the Supplemental Instruction (SI) program. We examined our SI program relative to…
Descriptors: Supplementary Education, Academic Support Services, Disproportionate Representation, School Holding Power
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