NotesFAQContact Us
Search Tips
Back to results
Peer reviewed Peer reviewed
PDF on ERIC Download full text
ERIC Number: EJ1196226
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2018
Pages: 17
Abstractor: As Provided
ISSN: EISSN-2578-7608
Testing Effect: A Further Examination of Open-Book and Closed-Book Test Formats
Senkova, Olesya; Otani, Hajime; Skeel, Reid L.; Babcock, Renée L.
Journal of Effective Teaching in Higher Education, v1 n1 p20-36 Fall 2018
If assessment is the purpose of testing, open-book tests may defeat the purpose. However, a goal of education is to build knowledge, and based on the literature, open-book tests may not be inferior to closed-book tests in promoting long-term retention of information. Participants studied Swahili-English pairs and either re-studied or took an initial quiz, which was cued recall or recognition in an open-book or closed-book format. One week later, the final closed-book recognition test showed higher performance in the quizzed conditions than in the study-twice condition, replicating the testing effect. However, performance was similar across the quizzed conditions, indicating that testing promoted long-term retention regardless of test format (open-book versus closed-book) and test type (cued recall versus recognition). Open-book tests are not inferior to closed-book tests in building knowledge and can be particularly useful in online classes because preventing cheating is difficult when closed-book tests are administered online.
Journal of Effective Teaching in Higher Education. Centers for Teaching Excellence and Faculty Leadership, University of North Carolina Wilmington, 601 South College Road, Wilmington, NC 28403. e-mail:; Web site:
Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Research
Education Level: Higher Education; Postsecondary Education
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Grant or Contract Numbers: N/A