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Paul, Richard; Elder, Linda – Journal of Developmental Education, 2013
In our last critical thinking column we introduced the idea of intellectual standards and pointed out that all natural languages are repositories for such standards, which, when appropriately applied, serve as guides for assessing human reasoning. We argued that intellectual standards are necessary for cultivating the intellect and living a…
Descriptors: Critical Thinking, Thinking Skills, Standards, Accuracy
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Elder, Linda; Paul, Richard – Journal of Developmental Education, 2013
Students live in a world of thoughts. They accept some thoughts as true. They reject others as false. But the thoughts they perceive as true are sometimes false, unsound, or misleading. And the thoughts they perceive as false and trivial are sometimes true and significant. People don't automatically sense what is reasonable and what is…
Descriptors: Critical Thinking, Thinking Skills, Standards, Cognitive Processes
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Elder, Linda; Paul, Richard – Journal of Developmental Education, 2013
In the last two columns in this critical thinking series we briefly introduced and discussed the concept of intellectual standards in connection with natural languages. We presented nine essential intellectual standards: clarity, precision, accuracy, relevance, depth, breadth, logicalness, significance, and fairness. These nine intellectual…
Descriptors: Critical Thinking, Standards, Languages, Language Usage
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Paul, Richard; Elder, Linda – Journal of Developmental Education, 2012
In the last four columns the authors introduced the concept of critical thinking competency standards and elaborated a number of such standards, targeting the analysis of thought, the assessment of thought, and the cultivation of intellectual virtues. In this column they focus on three subject-specific critical thinking competency standards. It is…
Descriptors: Critical Thinking, Skill Development, Academic Standards, Reading Skills
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Elder, Linda; Paul, Richard – Journal of Developmental Education, 2012
In the last three columns the authors introduced the concept and provided several examples of critical thinking competency standards that target the cultivation of intellectual traits. In this column the authors continue the discussion of these competency standards that are essential to teaching and learning because they go beyond the development…
Descriptors: Competence, Critical Thinking, Standards, Thinking Skills
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Elder, Linda; Paul, Richard – Journal of Developmental Education, 2010
Much lip service is given to the notion that students are learning to think critically. Studies consistently show that though faculty say that critical thinking is important to their instruction, they have difficulty articulating a clear conception of it and demonstrating how they foster it. In order for students to learn critical thinking,…
Descriptors: Competence, Critical Thinking, Higher Education, College Students
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Paul, Richard; Elder, Linda – Journal of Developmental Education, 2010
In the last two columns the authors introduced the idea of ethical reasoning and discussed its importance to education. They dealt with the problem of egocentric thinking as a barrier to ethical reasoning. And they focused on the importance of distinguishing ethics from other modes of thought with which it is often confused, namely social…
Descriptors: Ideology, Critical Thinking, Ethics, Correlation
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Elder, Linda; Paul, Richard – Journal of Developmental Education, 2010
In the last three columns, the authors introduced the idea of ethical reasoning, discussed its importance to education, and briefly dealt with a number of understandings essential to skilled ethical reasoning. In this column, the authors continue this discussion. They distinguish between simple and complex ethical questions and reason through an…
Descriptors: Critical Thinking, Ethics, Thinking Skills, Questioning Techniques
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Paul, Richard; Elder, Linda – Journal of Developmental Education, 2009
In the last column we introduced the idea of ethical reasoning (see Paul & Elder, 2006) and discussed its importance to education, assuming the intention is to cultivate fairminded critical thinking. We also discussed the problem of intrinsic egocentric thinking as a fundamental barrier to ethical reasoning. In this column we focus on conceptual…
Descriptors: Critical Thinking, Ethics, Social Values, Political Attitudes
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Elder, Linda; Paul, Richard – Journal of Developmental Education, 2009
In the last two columns we emphasized the importance of teaching so that students learn to think within and take command of content. We discussed the need to design instructional strategies for fostering deep learning, offering seven strategies as examples. In this column, we provide five additional strategies. As we maintain in all of our…
Descriptors: Educational Strategies, Critical Thinking, Teaching Methods, Learning
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Paul, Richard; Elder, Linda – Journal of Developmental Education, 2009
The development of ethical reasoning abilities is vitally important--both for living an ethical life and creating an ethical world. In this article, the authors set out some of the foundations of ethical reasoning. Their aim is to introduce some important intellectual tools and understandings for insightfully reasoning through ethical issues and…
Descriptors: Ethics, Critical Thinking, Thinking Skills, Psychological Patterns
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Paul, Richard; Elder, Linda – Journal of Developmental Education, 2008
In the last two articles, the authors introduced the concept of Socratic questioning and its relationship to critical thinking. They illuminated how understanding the concepts embedded in critical thinking naturally generates questions. For example, a thinker who understands the elements of thought asks questions which probe the parts of thinking.…
Descriptors: Critical Thinking, Questioning Techniques, Teaching Methods, Skill Development
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Paul, Richard; Elder, Linda – Journal of Developmental Education, 2008
In the last column we focused (as a primary goal of instruction) on the importance of teaching so that students learn to think their way into and through content. We stressed the need for well-designed daily structures and tactics for fostering deep learning, offering three strategies as examples. In this column, we provide four additional…
Descriptors: Critical Thinking, Teaching Methods, Learning Processes, Concept Formation
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Elder, Linda; Paul, Richard – Journal of Developmental Education, 2004
This column discusses the art of engaging text while reading. To read closely, students must get beyond impressionist reading. They must come to see that simply deciphering words on a page and getting some vague sense of what is there does not translate into substantive learning. Instead, they must learn that to read well is to engage in a…
Descriptors: Reading Comprehension, Critical Thinking, Reading Processes, Critical Reading
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Paul, Richard; Elder, Linda – Journal of Developmental Education, 2004
The "Critical Thinking and the Art of Close Reading" series (which includes this column and three others) focuses on some of the most basic understandings necessary for close reading (Paul & Elder, 2003). To read well, in addition to having these understandings, students must be able to identify the big picture within a text, to determine the key…
Descriptors: Reading Skills, Reading Comprehension, Thinking Skills, Critical Thinking
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