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Ingram, David – Journal of Child Language, 2002
Attempts to measure phonological acquisition have largely focused on segments, with less effort made to examine whole-word productions. This article proposes four measures designed to estimate a child's whole-word abilities: 1. the "phonological mean length of utterance", a measure of whole-word complexity for both child and target words, 2. the…
Descriptors: Language Acquisition, Phonology, Measures (Individuals), Word Recognition
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Ingram, David – Journal of Child Language, 1971
This study begins with a discussion of what a phonological rule is, and how the term has been used in previous investigations. The relation between the child's phonological system and the adult's system, the relationship between discrimination and production, and the viability of positing underlying forms for children's words are also discussed.…
Descriptors: Child Language, Czech, Deep Structure, Descriptive Linguistics
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Goad, Heather; Ingram, David – Journal of Child Language, 1987
Research on child language acquisition should distinguish between different possible causes of variation and not just attribute variation to individual variation. An alternative analysis using a different methodology can show that children's patterns of acquisition are actually relatively similar. (Author/CB)
Descriptors: Child Language, Individual Differences, Language Acquisition, Language Processing
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Tse, Sou-Mee; Ingram, David – Journal of Child Language, 1987
Examination of the phonological acquisition of a young girl whose parents spoke two Cantonese dialects indicated that she acquired neither parents' dialect, supporting the claim that children use all available input in acquiring language rather than limiting themselves to a primary language model. (Author/CB)
Descriptors: Cantonese, Child Language, Dialects, Distinctive Features (Language)
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Ingram, David – Journal of Child Language, 1995
Presents arguments against A. Fernald's (1987, 1989) universality of prosodic modifications in speech addressed to infants and supports the cultural account of prosodic modifications to infants and children. Data are presented to defend N. Bernstein-Ratner and C. Pye (1984) conclusions on Quiche mothers and are used to reinterpret the universal…
Descriptors: Affective Behavior, Cultural Influences, Infants, Linguistic Theory
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Fee, Jane; Ingram, David – Journal of Child Language, 1982
Research with 24 infants revealed that reduplication is a general pattern during the earliest stages of phonological development, used most frequently by children who follow a multisyllabic rather than monosyllabic course of development. (Author)
Descriptors: Child Language, Infants, Language Acquisition, Language Research
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Tyack, Dorothy; Ingram, David – Journal of Child Language, 1977
Two studies were conducted to discover possible patterns in question acquisition. For the production study, questions were collected from 22 children aged two to eleven. In the comprehension study, 100 children, aged three to five, were tested. The test controlled syntax and vocabulary and varied specific "wh-" question-words. (Author/RM)
Descriptors: Child Language, Comprehension, Intellectual Development, Language Acquisition