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Higgins, Peter – Journal of Adventure Education and Outdoor Learning, 2002
Presents an overview of the development of outdoor education in Scotland, including geophysical, historical, political, and social influences on attitudes toward outdoor recreation and education; Scottish theoretical perspectives on outdoor education; and the changing pattern of provision, from public provision in schools to greater involvement of…
Descriptors: Educational Development, Educational History, Elementary Secondary Education, European History
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Nicol, Robbie – Journal of Adventure Education and Outdoor Learning, 2002
During the late 1940s and much of the 1950s, attitudes towards outdoor education in Scotland were rooted in militaristic concerns with character building through adventure training and civic activities. During the late 1950s and the 1960s, the purposes of the field were seen as recreation, leisure education, personal and social development, and…
Descriptors: Citizenship Education, Educational Attitudes, Educational History, Educational Philosophy
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Cook, Lynn – Journal of Adventure Education and Outdoor Learning, 2001
A historical review of outdoor education in the United Kingdom discusses early objectives of preparing young men for war, improving physical health and moral character, and preventing juvenile delinquency; girls' outdoor courses of the 1950s that emphasized hygiene, homemaking, and child care skills; and outdoor education's reflection of sex-role…
Descriptors: Educational History, Educational Objectives, Females, Foreign Countries