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Johnson, Eric J.; Avineri, Netta; Johnson, David Cassels – International Multilingual Research Journal, 2017
Hart and Risley's (1995) concept of a "word gap" (aka "language gap") is widely used to describe inferior cognitive development and lower academic achievement as by-products of the language patterns of families from economically disadvantaged backgrounds. In recent decades, this line of deficit research has proliferated and…
Descriptors: Cognitive Development, Academic Achievement, Language Patterns, Economically Disadvantaged
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Johnson, Eric J. – International Multilingual Research Journal, 2014
In this discussion, I explore the unfolding effects of Arizona's anti-bilingual education law (Proposition 203) on schools with predominant language-minority student populations. Instead of facilitating academic progress, policies like Proposition 203 impede teachers from "scaffolding" (Long & Adamson, 2012, p. 39) their students'…
Descriptors: Language Minorities, State Legislation, Minority Group Students, Bilingual Education