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Gorard, Stephen – International Journal of Research & Method in Education, 2015
This paper revisits the use of effect sizes in the analysis of experimental and similar results, and reminds readers of the relative advantages of the mean absolute deviation as a measure of variation, as opposed to the more complex standard deviation. The mean absolute deviation is easier to use and understand, and more tolerant of extreme…
Descriptors: Effect Size, Computation, Comparative Analysis, Simulation
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Gorard, Stephen – International Journal of Research & Method in Education, 2013
Experimental designs involving the randomization of cases to treatment and control groups are powerful and under-used in many areas of social science and social policy. This paper reminds readers of the pre-and post-test, and the post-test only, designs, before explaining briefly how measurement errors propagate according to error theory. The…
Descriptors: Pretests Posttests, Research Design, Comparative Analysis, Data Analysis
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Gorard, Stephen; Cheng, Shou Chen – International Journal of Research & Method in Education, 2011
Previous international work has shown that clustering pupils with similar characteristics in particular schools yields no clear academic benefit, and can be disadvantageous both socially and personally. Understanding how and why this clustering happens, and how it may be reduced, is therefore important for policy. Yet previous work has tended to…
Descriptors: School Segregation, Academic Achievement, Foreign Countries, Socioeconomic Background
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Gorard, Stephen – International Journal of Research & Method in Education, 2009
The author previously published a paper discussing how to conduct an analysis based on a cluster sample. In that paper, the author outlined several widely adopted alternative approaches, and pointed out that such approaches are anyway not needed for population figures, and not possible for non-probability samples. Thus, the author queried the…
Descriptors: Probability, Misconceptions, Reader Response, Research Methodology
Gorard, Stephen; Cook, Thomas – International Journal of Research & Method in Education, 2007
This article started as a debate between the two authors. Both authors present a series of propositions about quality standards in education research. Cook's propositions, as might be expected, not only concern the importance of experimental trials for establishing the security of causal evidence, but also include some important practical and…
Descriptors: Educational Research, Inferences, Research Methodology, Convergent Thinking
Gorard, Stephen – International Journal of Research & Method in Education, 2007
This paper presents an argument against the wider adoption of complex forms of data analysis, using multi-level modeling (MLM) as an extended case study. MLM was devised to overcome some deficiencies in existing datasets, such as the bias caused by clustering. The paper suggests that MLM has an unclear theoretical and empirical basis, has not led…
Descriptors: Data Analysis, Research Methodology, Error of Measurement, Error Correction
Gorard, Stephen – International Journal of Research & Method in Education, 2006
This paper reconsiders long-term, national or socially contextualized trends in a number of important education areas commonly addressed by policy interventions. These include widening participation, teacher training, school performance, the use of targets, and student assessment. In each case, it is very difficult to sustain an argument that…
Descriptors: Educational Trends, Educational Policy, Intervention, Policy Analysis