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Range, Bret; Dougan, Kelli; Pijanowski, John – International Journal of Educational Leadership Preparation, 2011
In this article, the authors discuss two interventions deployed to remediate low performing students. The first is grade level retention in which a student is required to repeat a given grade due to lack of academic or social progress. The second is academic redshirting in which a parent voluntarily delays the entrance of her child into…
Descriptors: Grade Repetition, Kindergarten, School Entrance Age, Enrollment
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Dougan, Kelli; Pijanowski, John – International Journal of Educational Leadership Preparation, 2011
Academic redshirting is the act of keeping a child out of school for an additional year before kindergarten. This practice has become prevalent in America as kindergarten standards become more rigorous. There are few examples in the literature of research that explores the differences between children who have been academically redshirted and…
Descriptors: Academic Achievement, Kindergarten, Age Differences, Academic Standards
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Pijanowski, John – International Journal of Educational Leadership Preparation, 2009
This assessment is used in a class titled Ethical Leadership as part of a graduate level principal preparation program. The assessment has been approved by NCATE as meeting all of the stipulated ELCC standards for which it is designed (ELCC 5.1, 5.1. & 5.3). The assignment has two sections. In the first section candidates are asked to…
Descriptors: Decision Making, Ethics, Moral Issues, Barriers
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Holt, Carleton R.; Range, Bret; Pijanowski, John – International Journal of Educational Leadership Preparation, 2009
Literature on retention focuses on both short term and long term outcomes for retained students. Short term outcomes typically include academic achievement, self-esteem issues, and occurrence of behavior problems. Long term outcomes include academic growth and persistence to graduation. Regardless of the focus and intent of the study, research on…
Descriptors: Grade Repetition, Longitudinal Studies, Self Esteem, Academic Persistence