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Yoon, Susan A.; Anderson, Emma; Koehler-Yom, Jessica; Evans, Chad; Park, Miyoung; Sheldon, Josh; Schoenfeld, Ilana; Wendel, Daniel; Scheintaub, Hal; Klopfer, Eric – Instructional Science: An International Journal of the Learning Sciences, 2017
The recent next generation science standards in the United States have emphasized learning about complex systems as a core feature of science learning. Over the past 15 years, a number of educational tools and theories have been investigated to help students learn about complex systems; but surprisingly, little research has been devoted to…
Descriptors: Faculty Development, Teacher Attitudes, Educational Technology, Computer Assisted Instruction
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Grotzer, Tina A.; Solis, S. Lynneth; Tutwiler, M. Shane; Cuzzolino, Megan Powell – Instructional Science: An International Journal of the Learning Sciences, 2017
Understanding complex systems requires reasoning about causal relationships that behave or appear to behave probabilistically. Features such as distributed agency, large spatial scales, and time delays obscure co-variation relationships and complex interactions can result in non-deterministic relationships between causes and effects that are best…
Descriptors: Elementary School Students, Elementary School Science, Kindergarten, Grade 2
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Tripto, Jaklin; Assaraf, Orit Ben; Snapir, Zohar; Amit, Miriam – Instructional Science: An International Journal of the Learning Sciences, 2017
This study follows two groups of students (67 in all) through the 3 years of their high school biology education and examines the development of their systems thinking--specifically their models of the human body as a system. Both groups were composed of biology majors, but the students in one group also participated in a PBLbased extension…
Descriptors: Human Body, High School Students, Biology, Models
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Danish, Joshua; Saleh, Asmalina; Andrade, Alejandro; Bryan, Branden – Instructional Science: An International Journal of the Learning Sciences, 2017
Our paper builds on the construct of the zone of proximal development (ZPD) (Vygotsky in Mind in society: the development of higher psychological processes, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, 1978) to analyze the relationship between students' answers and the help they receive as they construct them. We report on a secondary analysis of…
Descriptors: Problem Solving, Ability, Scaffolding (Teaching Technique), Cognitive Development
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Chinn, Clark A. – Instructional Science: An International Journal of the Learning Sciences, 2017
This commentary on the special issue, entitled "Models and Tools for Systems Learning and Instruction," highlights the accomplishments of the papers in this collection. It also points to some avenues for further strengthening research on promoting systems understanding. Collectively, the papers make advances in our understanding of how…
Descriptors: Systems Approach, Teaching Methods, Evaluation Methods, Coding
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Stewart, Olivia G.; Jordan, Michelle E. – Instructional Science: An International Journal of the Learning Sciences, 2017
Recent scholarship highlights the wealth of varied and interconnected opportunities for learning science that informal environments can provide; yet, participants with different experiences, knowledge, and backgrounds do not all learn in the same ways. Thus, studies are needed that examine how particular participants take up learning opportunities…
Descriptors: Case Studies, Educational Environment, Science Education, STEM Education
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Sunny, Cijy Elizabeth; Taasoobshirazi, Gita; Clark, Lauren; Marchand, Gwen – Instructional Science: An International Journal of the Learning Sciences, 2017
Stereotype threat theory (STT) offers one explanation for achievement differences in math and science for both women and minority students. Specifically, STT posits that the perceived risk of confirming a negative stereotype about an individual's identity group acts as a psychological burden that negatively impacts performance. This study examined…
Descriptors: Gender Differences, Chemistry, Stereotypes, Test Anxiety
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Fyfe, Emily R.; Rittle-Johnson, Bethany – Instructional Science: An International Journal of the Learning Sciences, 2017
Recent research highlights the potential benefits of practice without feedback on learner's strategy knowledge. However, most prior work has been conducted in one-on-one settings with short retention intervals. We compared the effects of mathematics practice with and without correct-answer feedback on immediate and 1-week delayed performance in a…
Descriptors: Feedback (Response), Elementary School Mathematics, Drills (Practice), Grade 2
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Likourezos, Vicki; Kalyuga, Slava – Instructional Science: An International Journal of the Learning Sciences, 2017
According to cognitive load theory, using worked examples is an effective and efficient instructional strategy for initial cognitive skill acquisition for novice learners, as it reduces cognitive load and frees up cognitive resources to build task competence. Contrary to this, productive failure (as well as invention learning, desirable…
Descriptors: Problem Solving, Difficulty Level, Cognitive Processes, Direct Instruction
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Seufert, Tina; Wagner, Felix; Westphal, Julia – Instructional Science: An International Journal of the Learning Sciences, 2017
In some cases difficult-to-read learning materials lead to better performance than easy to-read materials. This phenomenon is called the disfluency effect and is attributed to a subjective feeling of task difficulty resulting in a deeper learning approach. In two studies (n[subscript 1] = 67, n[subscript 2] = 73) we investigated the impact of…
Descriptors: Instructional Materials, Readability, Difficulty Level, Cognitive Processes
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Singh, Anne-Marie; Marcus, Nadine; Ayres, Paul – Instructional Science: An International Journal of the Learning Sciences, 2017
Two experiments involving 125 grade-10 students learning about commerce investigated strategies to overcome the transient information effect caused by explanatory spoken text. The transient information effect occurs when learning is reduced as a result of information disappearing before the learner has time to adequately process it, or link it…
Descriptors: Grade 10, Multimedia Materials, Visual Aids, Verbal Communication
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Ögren, Magnus; Nyström, Marcus; Jarodzka, Halszka – Instructional Science: An International Journal of the Learning Sciences, 2017
Textbooks in applied mathematics often use graphs to explain the meaning of formulae, even though their benefit is still not fully explored. To test processes underlying this assumed multimedia effect we collected performance scores, eye movements, and think-aloud protocols from students solving problems in vector calculus with and without graphs.…
Descriptors: Calculus, Graphs, Problem Solving, Attention
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Cremers, Petra H. M.; Wals, Arjen E. J.; Wesselink, Renate; Mulder, Martin – Instructional Science: An International Journal of the Learning Sciences, 2017
Educational design research yields design knowledge, often in the form of design principles or guidelines that provide the rationale or "know-why" for the design of educational interventions. As such, design principles can be utilized by designers in contexts other than the research context in which they were generated. Although research…
Descriptors: Blended Learning, Instructional Design, Intervention, Teamwork
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Gillies, Robyn M.; Baffour, Bernard – Instructional Science: An International Journal of the Learning Sciences, 2017
The study sought to determine the effects of teacher-introduced multimodal representations and discourse on students' task engagement and scientific language during cooperative, inquiry-based science. The study involved eight Year 6 teachers in two conditions (four very effective teachers and four effective teachers) who taught two units of…
Descriptors: Teaching Methods, Cooperative Learning, Inquiry, Science Instruction
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Bonner, Sarah M.; Somers, Jennifer A.; Rivera, Gwendelyn J.; Keiler, Leslie S. – Instructional Science: An International Journal of the Learning Sciences, 2017
We investigated perceptions about learning strategy use and instructional roles among a sample of high needs adolescents (n = 230) who acted as near-peer instructional facilitators. The sample was drawn from science and mathematics classes in nonselective public secondary schools in New York City. Students participated in an inschool intervention…
Descriptors: Learning Strategies, Attitude Measures, Adolescents, Peer Teaching
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