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Gutowski, Thomas W. – History of Education Quarterly, 1988
Describes the growth of extracurricular activities in Chicago, Illinois high schools in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Examines the origins and membership of student clubs and the emergence of systematic educator involvement in them, which established adult control and discipline. Discusses implications for the ongoing study of…
Descriptors: Athletics, Clubs, Educational History, Extracurricular Activities
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Burney, John M. – History of Education Quarterly, 1985
Law students at Toulouse, France, during the nineteenth century failed to form student organizations for three reasons: Legal studies did not encourage joint student activity; the students came from an upper and middle-class culture that discouraged adventurism; and authorities went to great lengths to prevent collective activity by students. (RM)
Descriptors: Comparative Education, Educational History, Higher Education, Law Schools
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Piehler, G. Kurt – History of Education Quarterly, 1988
Discusses the rise of modern universities in the United States in the late nineteenth century, characterized as a period of wrenching change. Examines the founding and growth of the Phi Beta Kappa fraternity, describing its formal traditions. Emphasizes the importance of ritual and tradition in education and society. (GEA)
Descriptors: Academic Achievement, Educational History, Fraternities, Higher Education