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"To Better Our Condition": Educational Credentialing and "the Silent Compulsion of Economic Relations" in the United States, 1830 to the Present.
Hogan, David – History of Education Quarterly, 1996
Examines the social and economic pressures exerted on U.S. society by industrialization and a market economy and the concurrent effect on public education. Argues that market forces shaped education as a credentialing process that ensured social stratification. Discusses the present application of this process and its implications for educational…
Descriptors: American Dream, Credentials, Economic Impact, Education Work Relationship
From Student Markets to Credential Markets: The Creation of the Regents Examination System in New York State, 1864-1890.
Beadie, Nancy – History of Education Quarterly, 1999
Offers an account of the origins of the Regents examination system in New York providing an assessment of the preliminary examination results from 1866 to 1885 and a description of the development of advanced examinations. Discusses the implications of the New York case for understanding the emergence of credential markets. (CMK)
Descriptors: Academic Achievement, Credentials, Educational Change, Educational History