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From Widowhood to Wickedness: The Politics of Class and Gender in New York City Private Charity, 1799-1860.
Gilman, Amy – History of Education Quarterly, 1984
Vast changes took place in urban benevolence toward poor females in the first half of the nineteenth century. Agencies started by upper-class women as private organizations to support needy women became agencies run by salaried, professional, male charity workers whose job it was to train and discipline poor females. (RM)
Descriptors: Economically Disadvantaged, Females, Feminism, Higher Education
Losing Patience and Staying Professional: Women Teachers and the Problem of Classroom Discipline in New York City Schools in the 1920s.
Rousmaniere, Kate – History of Education Quarterly, 1994
Asserts that, in the urban classrooms of the early 20th century, women teachers faced two contradictory images: (1) the idealized view of the gentle, nurturing teacher; and (2) the reality of the harsh working conditions in city schools. Concludes that administrators were content to let classroom teachers deal with disciplinary issues. (CFR)
Descriptors: Classrooms, Corporal Punishment, Discipline Policy, Discipline Problems