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Fultz, Michael – History of Education Quarterly, 2021
This paper explores trends in summer and intermittent teaching practices among African American students in the post-Civil War South, focusing on student activities in the field, the institutions they attended, and the communities they served. Transitioning out of the restrictions and impoverishment of slavery while simultaneously seeking to…
Descriptors: African American Teachers, Educational History, African American Students, African American Education
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Ladson-Billings, Gloria; Anderson, James D. – History of Education Quarterly, 2021
In the second half of the twentieth century, the ranks of Black teachers and school administrators declined precipitously. Today, less than 7 percent of American teachers are Black. This loss has had a number of consequences for schools and communities, but perhaps especially for Black students. As recent research has found, Black students benefit…
Descriptors: African American Teachers, Teacher Shortage, Futures (of Society), Educational Trends