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Fultz, Michael – History of Education Quarterly, 2021
This paper explores trends in summer and intermittent teaching practices among African American students in the post-Civil War South, focusing on student activities in the field, the institutions they attended, and the communities they served. Transitioning out of the restrictions and impoverishment of slavery while simultaneously seeking to…
Descriptors: African American Teachers, Educational History, African American Students, African American Education
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Fultz, Michael – History of Education Quarterly, 1995
Examines the contradictory and often negative assessment of black teachers in the pre-World War II South by black leaders and civil rights advocates. Black leaders criticized teachers for being at best, poorly trained, and at worst, willing tools of socialized oppression. Asserts that the teachers performed well under difficult conditions. (MJP)
Descriptors: Black Community, Black Education, Black History, Black Leadership