Laws, Policies, & Programs
Assessments and Surveys
What Works Clearinghouse Rating
African American Teachers in the South, 1890-1940: Powerlessness and the Ironies of Expectations and Protest.
Fultz, Michael – History of Education Quarterly, 1995
Examines the contradictory and often negative assessment of black teachers in the pre-World War II South by black leaders and civil rights advocates. Black leaders criticized teachers for being at best, poorly trained, and at worst, willing tools of socialized oppression. Asserts that the teachers performed well under difficult conditions. (MJP)
Descriptors: Black Community, Black Education, Black History, Black Leadership