ERIC Number: EJ739866
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2006
Ascent into Darkness: Escalating Negativity in the Administration of Schools in the Kirov Region, 1931-1941
Holmes, Larry E.
History of Education, v35 n4-5 p521-540 Jul-Sep 2006
Reporting within the administration responsible for primary and secondary schools in the Kirov region from the early 1930s to 1941 followed a script of escalating negativity in which the higher the chain of command, the more negative the assessment. School directors wrote positive quarterly and annual evaluations. District and municipal departments of education, however, composed a negative account. Their bosses at the regional level produced even harsher evaluations. This ascent into darkness had another, still bleaker, dimension. The party's district committees demanded and received from school directors and local departments of education harsh assessments. These committees then drew a still more negative picture in their reports to the party's Regional Committee, further embellished by that committee's Schools Department when composing its official accounts. All reports, therefore, had little to do with the real situation--good or bad--prevailing in schools but everything to do with the bureaucracy's scripted version of reality. (Contains 82 footnotes.)
Descriptors: Foreign Countries, School Administration, Educational Assessment, Educational History, Administrators, Politics of Education, Elementary Schools, Secondary Schools
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Publication Type: Journal Articles; Opinion Papers
Education Level: Elementary Secondary Education
Authoring Institution: N/A
Identifiers - Location: Russia