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Gregory, Anne; Fergus, Edward – Future of Children, 2017
Beginning as early as preschool, race and gender are intertwined with the way US schools mete out discipline. In particular, black students and male students are much more likely than others to be suspended or expelled--punishments that we know can hold them back academically. These disparities, and the damage they can cause, have driven recent…
Descriptors: Social Development, Emotional Development, Equal Education, Discipline Policy
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Barrow, Lisa; Markman-Pithers, Lisa – Future of Children, 2016
Simply put, children with poor English skills are less likely to succeed in school and beyond. What's the best way to teach English to young children who aren't native English speakers? In this article, Lisa Barrow and Lisa Markman-Pithers examine the state of English learner education in the United States and review the evidence behind different…
Descriptors: English Language Learners, Teaching Methods, Bilingualism, Bilingual Education
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Crosnoe, Robert; Turley, Ruth N. Lopez – Future of Children, 2011
The children from immigrant families in the United States make up a historically diverse population, and they are demonstrating just as much diversity in their experiences in the K-12 educational system. Robert Crosnoe and Ruth Lopez Turley summarize these K-12 patterns, paying special attention to differences in academic functioning across…
Descriptors: Evidence, School Readiness, College Preparation, Elementary Secondary Education
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Cappella, Elise; Larner, Mary B. – Future of Children, 1999
Describes the cohort of children who were between 5 and 14 years of age in the 1990s and compares them with their counterparts earlier in the century. Reports their numbers, overall and by racial and ethnic heritage, describes characteristics of their parents, and the time they spend in school. Considers effects of these trends on public…
Descriptors: After School Programs, Children, Comparative Analysis, Educational History
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Lewit, Eugene M.; Terman, Donna L.; Behrman, Richard E. – Future of Children, 1997
Discusses the effects of poverty on children and current public policy toward child poverty, including areas of unmet need and recommendations for policies to meet the needs of poor children. The overall focus is on the potential to develop effective policies for children in poverty. (SLD)
Descriptors: Disadvantaged Youth, Educational Policy, Elementary Secondary Education, Low Income Groups
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Parrish, Thomas B.; Chambers, Jay G. – Future of Children, 1996
Describes what is known about current funding levels and funding sources for special education, projected trends of increasing demand for special education services, concerns about the current efforts to reform funding, and movements toward census-based funding. Criteria for evaluating state special education funding formulas are proposed. (GR)
Descriptors: Comparative Analysis, Educational Finance, Elementary Secondary Education, Finance Reform
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Terman, Donna L.; Behrman, Richard E. – Future of Children, 1997
Discusses adequacy and equity in school finance and efficiency in school operation, and recommends ways to improve all three. The ultimate responsibility lies at the state level. State policies and financing mechanisms must hold educators accountable while addressing challenges that are especially great for schools in high-poverty areas or for…
Descriptors: Accountability, Disadvantaged Youth, Educational Equity (Finance), Educational Finance
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Guthrie, James W. – Future of Children, 1997
Analyzes the increases in per-pupil expenditures in elementary and secondary education since World War II and discusses factors contributing to the increase. A significant cause is the 86% inflation-adjusted increase in teacher salaries between 1949-50 and 1971-72, although teacher salaries have increased little since that time. (SLD)
Descriptors: Budgets, Educational Equity (Finance), Educational Finance, Educational History
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Howell, Penny L.; Miller, Barbara B. – Future of Children, 1997
Summarizes local, state, and federal sources of school funding and discusses the mechanisms used to distribute state aid and the criteria for assessing a school finance system. Overall, the federal government contributes about 7% of a school budget, with the remainder typically split fairly evenly between state and local governments. (SLD)
Descriptors: Budgets, Criteria, Educational Equity (Finance), Educational Finance
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Monk, David H.; Pijanowski, John C.; Hussain, Samid – Future of Children, 1997
Describes budgetary authority at the federal, state, school district, and school site levels, discussing spending patterns and reviewing research on site-based management. In spite of great differences among districts, most are remarkably similar in allotting 60% to 63% of their budgets to instruction and dividing the rest among student services…
Descriptors: Budgeting, Budgets, Educational Administration, Educational Finance
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Augenblick, John G.; Myers, John L.; Anderson, Amy Berk – Future of Children, 1997
Traces the history of school finance litigation, discussing methods of measuring funding equity and methods of calculating an adequate level of funding for all schools. Although equity is usually measured in terms of variation in per-pupil revenues among districts in a single state, there are no universally accepted definitions of equity or…
Descriptors: Court Litigation, Definitions, Educational Equity (Finance), Educational Finance
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Lewit, Eugene M.; Baker, Linda Schuurmann – Future of Children, 1997
Examines the measurement of class size and a related measure, the student-teacher ratio, and considers the variations across states in class size and student-teacher ratios. Student-teacher teacher ratios are consistently lower than average class size because class-size figures do not reflect the use of specialized teachers or those who work in…
Descriptors: Class Size, Educational Finance, Educational Indicators, Educational Quality
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Howell, Penny; Miller, Barbara; Krantzler, Nora – Future of Children, 1997
This appendix to the theme issue summarizes the challenges of providing and maintaining educational facilities, discussing the maintenance of existing buildings and the need for new ones. Possible sources of needed funds are considered, and the equity problems related to school facilities are reviewed, emphasizing the problems of urban schools.…
Descriptors: Costs, Educational Equity (Finance), Educational Facilities, Educational Finance
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Krantzler, Nora; Terman, Donna – Future of Children, 1997
Explores equity issues related to the funding of urban schools. Data suggest that poverty level is more closely tied to spending differences than minority status. Federal and state funding formulas have brought per-student spending in most schools close to the national average, although high-income areas continue to enjoy higher per-pupil…
Descriptors: Educational Equity (Finance), Elementary Secondary Education, Expenditure per Student, Federal Government
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Coons, Susan – Future of Children, 1997
Explores the achievement of disadvantaged students in Catholic schools and considers the costs of comparable educations. Catholic school students, especially minority students, outperform others on standardized tests, although Catholic school students are not equivalent to public school students. The Catholic school cost per student is lower than…
Descriptors: Academic Achievement, Catholic Schools, Cost Effectiveness, Disadvantaged Youth
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