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Lang, Kevin; Kahn-Lang Spitzer, Ariella – Future of Children, 2020
In this article, economists Kevin Lang and Ariella Kahn-Lang Spitzer take up the expansive issue of discrimination, examining specifically how discrimination and bias shape people's outcomes. The authors focus primarily on discrimination by race, while acknowledging that discrimination exists along many other dimensions as well, including gender,…
Descriptors: Racial Discrimination, Racial Bias, Labor Market, Equal Opportunities (Jobs)
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Kalil, Ariel; Ryan, Rebecca – Future of Children, 2020
In this article, developmental psychologists Ariel Kalil and Rebecca Ryan examine the relation between parenting practices and socioeconomic gaps in child outcomes. They document substantial differences between richer and poorer families, including growing gaps in parental engagement and time use. These gaps matter: the fact that children born to…
Descriptors: Child Rearing, Parenting Styles, Socioeconomic Influences, Parent Child Relationship
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Hungerman, Daniel – Future of Children, 2020
Religious institutions can provide spiritual guidance and hope, a sense of belonging, and material support during periods of hardship. Daniel Hungerman reviews the evidence on the roles that religious institutions play in individuals' lives and how engagement with those institutions shapes individuals' economic wellbeing. First, he describes…
Descriptors: Religious Cultural Groups, Churches, Religious Organizations, Economic Factors
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Wasserman, Melanie – Future of Children, 2020
In this article, Melanie Wasserman reviews the latest evidence about the causal link between family structure and children's economic and social outcomes. Going beyond the question of whether family structure affects child outcomes--a topic that's already been covered at length, including in previous Future of Children volumes--she examines how…
Descriptors: Family Structure, Well Being, Children, Child Development
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Destin, Mesmin – Future of Children, 2020
Beliefs about socioeconomic mobility have important consequences, writes Mesmin Destin, especially for young people. Moreover, research by psychologists shows that such beliefs are malleable, based on the information and circumstances people encounter. The consequences of beliefs about mobility can be quite positive. When young people perceive…
Descriptors: Socioeconomic Status, Social Mobility, Barriers, Social Bias
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Dahl, Gordon B. – Future of Children, 2020
People don't base decisions about their economic life solely on their own individually formed ideas and preferences. Rather, they're influenced by the experiences of their peers and by social group norms. Gordon Dahl reviews the various ways family and neighborhood peer groups influence decisions to participate in the workforce and in government…
Descriptors: Decision Making, Family Influence, Peer Influence, Neighborhoods
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Kearney, Melissa S.; Levine, Phillip B. – Future of Children, 2020
Children from low-income backgrounds are less likely to have economically successful role models and mentors in their own families and neighborhoods, and are more likely to spend time with media. In this article, Melissa Kearney and Phillip Levine review the theoretical and empirical evidence on how these external forces can influence children's…
Descriptors: Role Models, Mentors, Mass Media Effects, Child Development
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Hellerstein, Judith K.; Neumark, David – Future of Children, 2020
Scholars and policy makers alike are increasingly interested in understanding how social capital shapes people's economic lives. But the idea of social capital is an amorphous one. In this article, economists Judy Hellerstein and David Neumark define social capital as networks of relationships among people who are connected by where they live or…
Descriptors: Social Capital, Networks, Well Being, Labor Market
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Schickedanz, Adam; Halfon, Neal – Future of Children, 2020
Health care reaches more children under age three in the United States than any other family-facing system and represents the most common entry point for developmental assessment of and services for children. In this article, Adam Schickedanz and Neal Halfon examine how well the child health care system promotes healthy child development early in…
Descriptors: Child Development, Child Health, Allied Health Personnel, Health Services
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Doan, Stacey N.; Evans, Gary W. – Future of Children, 2020
Many children, especially those from lower-income families, face considerable instability early in their lives. This may include changes in family structure, irregular family routines, frequent moves, fluctuating daycare arrangements, and noisy, crowded, or generally chaotic environments. Moreover, instability and chaos affect young children's…
Descriptors: At Risk Persons, Young Children, Environmental Influences, Child Development
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Chaudry, Ajay; Sandstrom, Heather – Future of Children, 2020
In this article, Ajay Chaudry and Heather Sandstrom review research on child care and early education for children under age three. They describe the array of early care and education arrangements families use for infants and toddlers; how these patterns have changed in recent decades; and differences by family socioeconomic status, race, and…
Descriptors: Infants, Toddlers, Child Care, Preschool Education
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Wimer, Christopher; Wolf, Sharon – Future of Children, 2020
Is income during children's earliest years a key determinant of long-term child and adult success in the longer run? The research to date, Christopher Wimer and Sharon Wolf write, suggests that it is. Wimer and Wolf review substantial descriptive evidence that income can enhance child development and later adult outcomes, and that it does so most…
Descriptors: Family Income, Child Development, Barriers, Young Children
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O'Sullivan, Alexandra; Monk, Catherine – Future of Children, 2020
Mother and child wellbeing are intimately connected during pregnancy and the first 12 months of the infant's life. The fetus and child directly experience the mother's life and are shaped by it. A mother's environmental experiences, physical health, and psychological distress affect her interactions with her infant, which in turn have…
Descriptors: Mothers, Infants, Child Development, Environmental Influences
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DePasquale, Carrie E.; Gunnar, Megan R. – Future of Children, 2020
Parental sensitivity and nurturance are important mechanisms for establishing biological, emotional, and social functioning in childhood. Sensitive, nurturing care is most critical during the first three years of life, when attachment relationships form and parental care shapes foundational neural and physiological systems, with lifelong…
Descriptors: Child Rearing, Parenting Styles, Child Development, Attachment Behavior
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Kapengut, Dina; Noble, Kimberly G. – Future of Children, 2020
The early home language environment, and parents in particular, form the foundation of children's language development. In this article, Dina Kapengut and Kimberly Noble explore the intersection of neuroscience and developmental psychology to explain how language experiences in the home, and the "home learning environment" more broadly,…
Descriptors: Family Environment, Language Acquisition, Young Children, Child Development
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