ERIC Number: EJ722899
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2005-Dec
Doctoral and Postdoctoral Education in Science and Engineering: Europe in the International Competition
European Journal of Education, v40 n4 p367-392 Dec 2005
In this article, we discuss the recent evolutions of science and engineering doctoral and postdoctoral education in Europe. Indeed, Ph.Ds are crucial to the conduct of research and innovation in the national innovation systems, as they provide a large amount of input into creating the competitive advantage, notably through basic research. First, we show that Asia, and notably China, is producing more Ph.Ds than the United States and Europe. In many EU countries, the number of Ph.Ds has levelled off or even declined recently in many natural sciences and engineering fields. Second, we discuss the European situation in the international competition for talents. We study the European brain drain question, mainly at the doctoral and postdoctoral level. We find that there is an asymmetry in the flows of Ph.D students and postdoctorates between Europe and the United States, at the advantage of this latter country. These two points--production of Ph.Ds, international flows of doctorates and postdoctorates--lead us to be concerned about the future growth and innovation in Europe. In conclusion, we outline some European policy responses in the perspective of building the European Research Area and the European Higher Education Area.
Descriptors: Postdoctoral Education, Doctoral Programs, Competition, Natural Sciences, Engineering, Brain Drain, Foreign Countries
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Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Descriptive
Education Level: Higher Education
Authoring Institution: N/A
Identifiers - Location: Asia; China; United States