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Gottfried, Michael A. – Elementary School Journal, 2012
This study contributes a novel perspective on grade retention by empirically examining how classroom composition relates to the standardized-testing performance of grade-retained students in their post-retained years. This evaluation employed a sample of entire cohorts of urban elementary school children in the Philadelphia School District over 6…
Descriptors: Grade Repetition, School Holding Power, Evidence, Testing
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Scheele, Anna F.; Leseman, Paul P. M.; Mayo, Aziza Y.; Elbers, Ed – Elementary School Journal, 2012
This study examined the relations between the home language and literacy environment and emergent skill to use academic language in a sample of 58 3-year-old Dutch children, focusing on production and comprehension in 3 genres: personal narrative, impersonal narrative, and instruction in play. Regarding production, children used academic language…
Descriptors: Academic Discourse, School Readiness, Short Term Memory, Emergent Literacy