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ERIC Number: EJ992907
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2012-Dec
Pages: 23
Abstractor: As Provided
ISSN: ISSN-0013-5984
Reframing Retention: New Evidence from within the Elementary School Classroom on Post-Retention Performance
Gottfried, Michael A.
Elementary School Journal, v113 n2 p192-214 Dec 2012
This study contributes a novel perspective on grade retention by empirically examining how classroom composition relates to the standardized-testing performance of grade-retained students in their post-retained years. This evaluation employed a sample of entire cohorts of urban elementary school children in the Philadelphia School District over 6 years of observations. For the approximate 21% of students retained in the sample, the results demonstrate that as retained students are placed in classrooms with higher average and greater standard deviation in peer ability, they tend to achieve lower testing outcomes in their post-retention years compared to their continuously promoted counterparts. Further investigation also shows that these relationships are not solely driven by having low levels of achievement. Implications are discussed. (Contains 6 tables and 4 notes.)
University of Chicago Press. Journals Division, P.O. Box 37005, Chicago, IL 60637. Tel: 877-705-1878; Tel: 773-753-3347; Fax: 877-705-1879; Fax: 773-753-0811; e-mail:; Web site:
Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Research
Education Level: Elementary Education; Grade 2; Grade 3; Grade 4
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Identifiers - Location: Pennsylvania
Identifiers - Assessments and Surveys: Stanford Achievement Tests