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Ames, Carole; Ames, Russell – Elementary School Journal, 1984
Examines motivational processes within different goal/reward structures, i.e., competitive, cooperative, and individualistic. Reviews the results of several studies of teacher and student perceptions of personal ability and success and failure. Discusses educational implications of the authors' conclusion that alternative goal structures lead to…
Descriptors: Achievement Need, Competition, Cooperation, Elementary School Students
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Hill, Kennedy T.; Wigfield, Allan – Elementary School Journal, 1984
Discusses the problem of and solution to anxiety in school testing situations. Focuses on Hill and his colleagues' long term program of research. Describes school intervention studies where new evaluation procedures and teaching programs have been developed to help students perform better in evaluative situations. (CB)
Descriptors: Elementary School Students, Elementary Secondary Education, Grades (Scholastic), Intervention
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Grant, Linda – Elementary School Journal, 1988
Introduces a journal issue that is intended to regenerate research on minorities in elementary schools and focus on important questions that have been underexplored. Discusses declines in research on minorities, and the problems and possible directions of new research.(SKC)
Descriptors: Attitude Change, Classroom Desegregation, Desegregation Effects, Educational Research
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Entwisle, Doris R.; Alexander, Karl L. – Elementary School Journal, 1988
Investigates whether Black and White first-grade students' cognitive growth as marked by teachers is affected by the same factors as those that affect their growth as gauged by the California Achievement Test. Finds that factors are much more closely matched for White children than for Black. (SKC)
Descriptors: Academic Achievement, Black Youth, Cognitive Development, Cultural Differences
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Goetz, Judith Preissle; Breneman, E. Anne Rowley – Elementary School Journal, 1988
Uses Boocock's model of the social context of education to compare divergent climates for Black students in two rural southern elementary schools. In both schools Black and White teachers and students use an assumed color blindness and a preoccupation with subject matter to mask differential treatment of Black students. (SKC)
Descriptors: Black Youth, Educational Research, Elementary Education, Minority Group Children
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Irvine, Jacqueline Jordan – Elementary School Journal, 1988
Identifies four sources for recent declines in numbers of minority teachers and administrators: (1) overall decline in education majors; (2) decline in Black college students; (3) widening career options for Blacks--especially females; and (4) teacher competency tests. (SKC)
Descriptors: Black Employment, Black Teachers, Career Choice, Educational Research
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Moore, Helen A. – Elementary School Journal, 1988
Examines leadership skills and the perception of leadership by students and teachers in 10 desegregated elementary schools that were divided into high equity and low equity groups. In low equity schools, perceptions of leadership were lower among Hispanics than Anglos. (SKC)
Descriptors: Educational Research, Elementary Education, Equal Education, Ethnic Bias
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Lee, Everett S.; Rong, Xue-lan – Elementary School Journal, 1988
Describes the economic and educational achievements of Asian American immigrants to the United States. Criticizes current theories of the causes of Asian American achievement, and posits that family structure, along with middleman and niche theories of migration, may explain their success. (SKC)
Descriptors: Academic Achievement, Asian Americans, Economic Status, Educational Research
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Grant, Carl A. – Elementary School Journal, 1988
Suggests that race is an important dynamic of schooling and that teachers must daily consider its importance to the educational welfare of all students, and of students of color in particular. Provides suggestions for teaching about race. (SKC)
Descriptors: Educational Research, Elementary Education, Ethnic Groups, Minority Group Children
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Marx, Ronald W.; Walsh, John – Elementary School Journal, 1988
Offers a descriptive theory of the nature of classroom tasks. Describes the interplay among (1) the conditions under which tasks are set; (2) the cognitive plans students use to accomplish tasks; and (3) the products students create as a result of their task-related efforts. (SKC)
Descriptors: Class Activities, Classroom Environment, Classroom Research, Cognitive Processes
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Mergendoller, John R.; And Others – Elementary School Journal, 1988
Assessed the level of cognitive demand inherent in the manner in which students were held accountable for activities and tasks in seventh grade life science classes. Notes that most tasks placed minimal cognitive demand on students, as they involved copying or simple step-by-step procedures. (SKC)
Descriptors: Biological Sciences, Classroom Research, Difficulty Level, Grade 7
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Anderson, Richard C.; And Others – Elementary School Journal, 1988
Examines evidence on error rate in classroom tasks. Claims the usual interpretation of a negative relationship between error rate (especially in oral reading errors) and reading achievement as meaning that low error rates lead to reading growth may be mistaken. Suggests oral errors cause tension, which increases attention and instigates deeper…
Descriptors: Classroom Research, Cognitive Processes, Elementary Education, Elementary School Students
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Anderson, Linda M.; And Others – Elementary School Journal, 1988
Examined classroom task environments and their relation to elementary students' task-related beliefs. Found two dimensions of teachers' practice associated with desirable patterns of student beliefs: (1) extent to which information is structured to make it predictable and comprehensible; and (2) frequency of opportunity for students to regulate…
Descriptors: Beliefs, Class Activities, Classroom Environment, Classroom Research
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Marshall, Hermine H. – Elementary School Journal, 1987
Explores strategies used by fifth-grade teachers who exemplified three different classroom orientations (learning-oriented, work-oriented, or work-avoidance) toward student motivation and learning. Raises questions for future research and highlights strategies that support motivation to learn. (NH)
Descriptors: Elementary Education, Elementary School Students, Elementary School Teachers, Grade 5
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Gerleman, Sherry L. – Elementary School Journal, 1987
Describes several facets of small-group instruction including teacher, group, and individual behaviors and use of time. Observational data were supplemented by teacher interviews concerning student groupings. Grouping practice appeared to result from decisions teachers made primarily on the basis of three factors: the teacher, the students, and…
Descriptors: Ability Grouping, Classroom Observation Techniques, Elementary Education, Elementary School Mathematics
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