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Iruka, Iheoma U.; Sheridan, Susan; Koziol, Natalie; Schumacher, Rachel; Kerby, Hannah; Prokasky, Amanda; Choi, Dong-ho – Elementary School Journal, 2022
Using data from a Midwest project, this study examines malleable factors associated with the reduction of language, achievement, and social-emotional development gaps among Black, Latine, and White children at the end of kindergarten. Gaps at the end of kindergarten between Latine and White children in expressive language, and between Black and…
Descriptors: African American Students, Hispanic American Students, White Students, Kindergarten
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Ehrlich, Sara Zadunaisky; Stavans, Anat; Seroussi, Batia – Elementary School Journal, 2022
Spelling is a significant parameter in establishing text quality. This study aims to describe the developmental path of spelling errors in expository texts, argumentative and descriptive--written by Hebrew speaking children from second through fifth grades. Bearing in mind different genre requirements, we aimed to determine whether genre type…
Descriptors: Semitic Languages, Spelling, Error Patterns, Classification
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Blackstock-Bernstein, Anne; Woodbridge, Amy; Bailey, Alison – Elementary School Journal, 2022
Students must use oral and written explanations to demonstrate their grasp of academic content, but little is known about the progression of elementary students' explanatory language, particularly oral language. The current study of 512 explanations produced by 128 third- through sixth-grade students examines whether children's oral explanations…
Descriptors: Elementary School Students, Oral Language, Written Language, Vocabulary
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Liebfreund, Meghan D.; Porter, Stephen R.; Amendum, Steven J.; Starcke, Matt A. – Elementary School Journal, 2022
The present study employed a difference-in-difference approach to determine the impact of a technologically enhanced diagnostic and formative assessment system implemented in one US state in kindergarten through third grade on school-level end-of-year third-grade reading test scores and percentage of students receiving special education services.…
Descriptors: Elementary School Students, Grade 3, Reading Tests, Scores
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Ralston, Nicole; Li, Min – Elementary School Journal, 2022
Research in the area of equivalence and the equal sign dates back decades, demonstrating students often possess misconceptions concerning the meaning of equivalence and the equal sign. Students often understand the equal sign to mean the answer comes next (i.e., an operational definition) instead of the same as (i.e., a relational definition).…
Descriptors: Elementary School Students, Knowledge Level, Symbols (Mathematics), Misconceptions
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Upitis, Rena; Donaldson, Maresa; Osman, Fathiah – Elementary School Journal, 2022
This article describes the challenges and triumphs in introducing music in the primary division of a private elementary school in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Data sources included classroom observations, field notes, lesson plans, professional development materials, photographs, audio-recordings, videos, surveys, and interviews. Data were analyzed using…
Descriptors: Foreign Countries, Music Education, Primary Education, Elementary School Teachers
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Powell, Sarah R.; Namkung, Jessica M.; Lin, Xin – Elementary School Journal, 2022
In mathematics, the keyword strategy involves identifying a keyword and using that keyword to determine the operation needed to find a word problem's solution. We analyzed 747 high-stakes released items across grades 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, and 8. Of these, 57 items did not involve written text. Of the 690 text-based items, we classified 69% as directive…
Descriptors: Information Retrieval, Problem Solving, Classification, High Stakes Tests
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Cooc, North; Quinn, David M. – Elementary School Journal, 2022
Studies examining seasonal variation in academic skills for children have focused on learning loss or stagnation during the summer, particularly for students from low-income or minoritized racial and ethnic backgrounds. In this study, we expand the literature to focus on another student population that may be susceptible to summer learning loss:…
Descriptors: Students with Disabilities, Achievement Gains, At Risk Students, Special Education
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Hinestroza, José Martínez – Elementary School Journal, 2022
Previous research on participation in mathematics classrooms has focused on adults' perspectives, which overemphasize the role of talk. Drawing on sociocultural theory, I define participation as a complex and situated phenomenon. I describe a participatory research collaboration where a Spanish immersion third-grade teacher, and I brought the…
Descriptors: Student Participation, Teacher Role, Mathematics Education, Grade 3
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Mayger, Linda K. – Elementary School Journal, 2022
Since US state policy makers reformed their teacher evaluation systems in the mid-2010s, the scholarly literature has paid little attention to the classroom-level measures of student learning growth that many states repurposed as teacher performance measures. This study addresses the gap by documenting teachers' and principals' experiences with…
Descriptors: Teacher Effectiveness, Evaluation Methods, Teacher Attitudes, Accountability
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Hiebert, Elfrieda H.; Tortorelli, Laura S. – Elementary School Journal, 2022
Texts classified according to guided reading levels (GRL) are ubiquitous in US beginning reading classrooms. This study examined features of texts across three grade bands (kindergarten, early first grade, final first grade) and the 10 GRLs within these bands. The 510 texts came from three programs with different functions in beginning reading…
Descriptors: Reading Instruction, Teaching Methods, Kindergarten, Grade 1
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Wood, Carla; Wanzek, Jeanne; Schatschneider, Christopher – Elementary School Journal, 2022
This study aimed to examine verbal behaviors within communicative interactions at the teacher/classroom level among second-grade classrooms that differ in socioeconomic status (SES) backgrounds. Investigators recorded and examined language use across instructional periods for 38 second-grade classrooms. Teachers' communication behaviors were…
Descriptors: Interpersonal Communication, Classroom Communication, Grade 2, Elementary School Students
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Gotwals, Amelia Wenk; Wright, Tanya S.; Domke, Lisa; Anderson, Blythe – Elementary School Journal, 2022
In this systematic literature review, we synthesize 48 research studies about science talk in elementary classrooms to inform the development of supports for teachers. Our findings suggest that characteristics of high-quality elementary science talk include that it (1) supports equitable student participation and engagement, (2) supports deepening…
Descriptors: Science Instruction, Elementary School Science, Discussion (Teaching Technique), Student Participation
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Carlson, Sarah E.; Broek, Paul van den; McMaster, Kristen L. – Elementary School Journal, 2022
This study examines factors that influence readers' cognitive processing (i.e., inference generation) and the development of a mental representation of text: comprehension skill and working memory (WM). Elementary students (N = 61) participated in causal questioning conditions with narrative texts to examine text- and knowledge-based inferences…
Descriptors: Reading Processes, Reading Comprehension, Short Term Memory, Elementary School Students
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Hall, Colby; Capin, Philip; Vaughn, Sharon; Gillam, Sandra L.; Wada, Rebekah; Fall, Anna-Mária; Roberts, Greg; Dille, Jordan T.; Gillam, Ronald B. – Elementary School Journal, 2021
This study examined the amount and types of narrative instruction (i.e., story comprehension, oral storytelling, and story writing instruction) that general education English language arts teachers provide to students in grades 1 through 4. The research team conducted 121 approximately 30-minute classroom observations. Educators were asked to…
Descriptors: Language Arts, English Teachers, Grade 1, Grade 2
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