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Brennan, Robert L.; Kim, Stella Y.; Lee, Won-Chan – Educational and Psychological Measurement, 2022
This article extends multivariate generalizability theory (MGT) to tests with different random-effects designs for each level of a fixed facet. There are numerous situations in which the design of a test and the resulting data structure are not definable by a single design. One example is mixed-format tests that are composed of multiple-choice and…
Descriptors: Multivariate Analysis, Generalizability Theory, Multiple Choice Tests, Test Construction
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Attali, Yigal; Laitusis, Cara; Stone, Elizabeth – Educational and Psychological Measurement, 2016
There are many reasons to believe that open-ended (OE) and multiple-choice (MC) items elicit different cognitive demands of students. However, empirical evidence that supports this view is lacking. In this study, we investigated the reactions of test takers to an interactive assessment with immediate feedback and answer-revision opportunities for…
Descriptors: Test Items, Questioning Techniques, Differences, Student Reaction
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Andrich, David; Marais, Ida; Humphry, Stephen Mark – Educational and Psychological Measurement, 2016
Recent research has shown how the statistical bias in Rasch model difficulty estimates induced by guessing in multiple-choice items can be eliminated. Using vertical scaling of a high-profile national reading test, it is shown that the dominant effect of removing such bias is a nonlinear change in the unit of scale across the continuum. The…
Descriptors: Guessing (Tests), Statistical Bias, Item Response Theory, Multiple Choice Tests
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Wolkowitz, Amanda A.; Skorupski, William P. – Educational and Psychological Measurement, 2013
When missing values are present in item response data, there are a number of ways one might impute a correct or incorrect response to a multiple-choice item. There are significantly fewer methods for imputing the actual response option an examinee may have provided if he or she had not omitted the item either purposely or accidentally. This…
Descriptors: Multiple Choice Tests, Statistical Analysis, Models, Accuracy
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Kobrin, Jennifer L.; Kim, YoungKoung; Sackett, Paul R. – Educational and Psychological Measurement, 2012
There is much debate on the merits and pitfalls of standardized tests for college admission, with questions regarding the format (multiple-choice vs. constructed response), cognitive complexity, and content of these assessments (achievement vs. aptitude) at the forefront of the discussion. This study addressed these questions by investigating the…
Descriptors: Grade Point Average, Standardized Tests, Predictive Validity, Predictor Variables
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Hohensinn, Christine; Kubinger, Klaus D. – Educational and Psychological Measurement, 2011
In aptitude and achievement tests, different response formats are usually used. A fundamental distinction must be made between the class of multiple-choice formats and the constructed response formats. Previous studies have examined the impact of different response formats applying traditional statistical approaches, but these influences can also…
Descriptors: Item Response Theory, Multiple Choice Tests, Responses, Test Format
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Lienert, Gustav A.; Oeveste, Hans Zur – Educational and Psychological Measurement, 1985
Configural frequency analysis (CFA) is suggested as a technique for longitudinal research in developmental psychology. Stability and change in answers to multiple choice and yes-no item patterns obtained with repeated measurements are identified by CFA and illustrated by developmental analysis of an item from Gorham's Proverb Test. (Author/DWH)
Descriptors: Cognitive Development, Developmental Psychology, Elementary Secondary Education, Longitudinal Studies
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Blumberg, Phyllis; And Others – Educational and Psychological Measurement, 1982
First year medical students answered parallel multiple-choice questions at different taxonomic levels as part of their diagnostic examinations. The results show that when content is held constant, students perform as well on interpretation and problem-solving questions as on recall questions. (Author/BW)
Descriptors: Classification, Cognitive Processes, Difficulty Level, Higher Education
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Willson, Victor L. – Educational and Psychological Measurement, 1982
The Serlin-Kaiser procedure is used to complete a principal components solution for scoring weights for all options of a given item. Coefficient alpha is maximized for a given multiple choice test. (Author/GK)
Descriptors: Analysis of Covariance, Factor Analysis, Multiple Choice Tests, Scoring Formulas
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Green, Kathy – Educational and Psychological Measurement, 1984
Two factors, language difficulty and option set convergence, were experimentally manipulated and their effects on item difficulty assessed. Option convergence was found to have a significant effect on item difficulty while the effect of language difficulty was not significant. (Author/BW)
Descriptors: Difficulty Level, Error Patterns, Higher Education, Multiple Choice Tests
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Plake, Barbara S.; Huntley, Renee M. – Educational and Psychological Measurement, 1984
Two studies examined the effect of making the correct answer of a multiple choice test item grammatically consistent with the item. American College Testing Assessment experimental items were constructed to investigate grammatical compliance to investigate grammatical compliance for plural-singular and vowel-consonant agreement. Results suggest…
Descriptors: Grammar, Higher Education, Item Analysis, Multiple Choice Tests
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Mentzer, Thomas L. – Educational and Psychological Measurement, 1982
Evidence of biases in the correct answers in multiple-choice test item files were found to include "all of the above" bias in which that answer was correct more than 25 percent of the time, and a bias that the longest answer was correct too frequently. Seven bias types were studied. (Author/CM)
Descriptors: Educational Testing, Higher Education, Multiple Choice Tests, Psychology
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Green, Kathy E. – Educational and Psychological Measurement, 1983
This study was concerned with the reliability and validity of subjective judgments about five characteristics of multiple-choice test items from an introductory college-level astronomy test: (1) item difficulty, (2) language complexity, (3) content importance or relevance, (4) response set convergence, and (5) process complexity. (Author)
Descriptors: Achievement Tests, Astronomy, Difficulty Level, Evaluative Thinking
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Wilcox, Rand R. – Educational and Psychological Measurement, 1982
When determining criterion-referenced test length, problems of guessing are shown to be more serious than expected. A new method of scoring is presented that corrects for guessing without assuming that guessing is random. Empirical investigations of the procedure are examined. Test length can be substantially reduced. (Author/CM)
Descriptors: Criterion Referenced Tests, Guessing (Tests), Multiple Choice Tests, Scoring
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Aiken, Lewis R. – Educational and Psychological Measurement, 1982
Five types of multiple-choice items that can be used to assess higher-order educational objectives are examined. The item types do not exhaust the possibilities, but they are standard forms found helpful in writing items to measure more than recognitive memory. (Author/CM)
Descriptors: Cognitive Measurement, Educational Objectives, Evaluation Methods, Multiple Choice Tests
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