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Cho, Sun-Joo; Preacher, Kristopher J. – Educational and Psychological Measurement, 2016
Multilevel modeling (MLM) is frequently used to detect cluster-level group differences in cluster randomized trial and observational studies. Group differences on the outcomes (posttest scores) are detected by controlling for the covariate (pretest scores) as a proxy variable for unobserved factors that predict future attributes. The pretest and…
Descriptors: Error of Measurement, Error Correction, Multivariate Analysis, Hierarchical Linear Modeling
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Raykov, Tenko; Marcoulides, George A. – Educational and Psychological Measurement, 2016
The frequently neglected and often misunderstood relationship between classical test theory and item response theory is discussed for the unidimensional case with binary measures and no guessing. It is pointed out that popular item response models can be directly obtained from classical test theory-based models by accounting for the discrete…
Descriptors: Test Theory, Item Response Theory, Models, Correlation
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Engelhard, George, Jr. – Educational and Psychological Measurement, 1992
A historical perspective is provided of the concept of invariance in measurement theory, describing sample-invariant item calibration and item-invariant measurement of individuals. Invariance as a key measurement concept is illustrated through the measurement theories of E. L. Thorndike, L. L. Thurstone, and G. Rasch. (SLD)
Descriptors: Behavioral Sciences, Educational History, Measurement Techniques, Psychometrics