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Hohensinn, Christine; Kubinger, Klaus D. – Educational and Psychological Measurement, 2011
In aptitude and achievement tests, different response formats are usually used. A fundamental distinction must be made between the class of multiple-choice formats and the constructed response formats. Previous studies have examined the impact of different response formats applying traditional statistical approaches, but these influences can also…
Descriptors: Item Response Theory, Multiple Choice Tests, Responses, Test Format
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Bruno, James E.; Dirkzwager, A. – Educational and Psychological Measurement, 1995
Determining the optimal number of choices on a multiple-choice test is explored analytically from an information theory perspective. The analysis revealed that, in general, three choices seem optimal. This finding is in agreement with previous statistical and psychometric research. (SLD)
Descriptors: Distractors (Tests), Information Theory, Multiple Choice Tests, Psychometrics
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Knowles, Susan L.; Welch, Cynthia A. – Educational and Psychological Measurement, 1992
A meta-analysis of the difficulty and discrimination of the "none-of-the-above" (NOTA) test option was conducted with 12 articles (20 effect sizes) for difficulty and 7 studies (11 effect sizes) for discrimination. Findings indicate that using the NOTA option does not result in items of lesser quality. (SLD)
Descriptors: Difficulty Level, Effect Size, Meta Analysis, Multiple Choice Tests
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Cizek, Gregory J. – Educational and Psychological Measurement, 1994
Performance of a common set of test items on an examination in which the order of options for one test form was experimentally manipulated. Results for 759 medical specialty board examinees find that reordering item options results in significant but unpredictable effects on item difficulty. (SLD)
Descriptors: Change, Difficulty Level, Equated Scores, Licensing Examinations (Professions)
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Trevisan, Michael S.; And Others – Educational and Psychological Measurement, 1994
The reliabilities of 2-, 3-, 4-, and 5-choice tests were compared through an incremental-option model on a test taken by 154 high school seniors. Creating the test forms incrementally more closely approximates actual test construction. The nonsignificant differences among the option choices support the three-option item. (SLD)
Descriptors: Distractors (Tests), Estimation (Mathematics), High School Students, High Schools
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Trevisan, Michael S.; And Others – Educational and Psychological Measurement, 1991
The reliability and validity of multiple-choice tests were computed as a function of the number of options per item and student ability for 435 parochial high school juniors, who were administered the Washington Pre-College Test Battery. Results suggest the efficacy of the three-option item. (SLD)
Descriptors: Ability, Comparative Testing, Distractors (Tests), Grade Point Average
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Crehan, Kevin D.; And Others – Educational and Psychological Measurement, 1993
Studies with 220 college students found that multiple-choice test items with 3 items are more difficult than those with 4 items, and items with the none-of-these option are more difficult than those without this option. Neither format manipulation affected item discrimination. Implications for test construction are discussed. (SLD)
Descriptors: College Students, Comparative Testing, Difficulty Level, Distractors (Tests)
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Tollefson, Nona – Educational and Psychological Measurement, 1987
This study compared the item difficulty, item discrimination, and test reliability of three forms of multiple-choice items: (1) one correct answer; (2) "none of the above" as a foil; and (3) "none of the above" as the correct answer. Twelve items in the three formats were administered in a college statistics examination. (BS)
Descriptors: Difficulty Level, Higher Education, Item Analysis, Multiple Choice Tests
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Owen, Steven V.; Froman, Robin D. – Educational and Psychological Measurement, 1987
To test further for efficacy of three-option achievement items, parallel three- and five-option item tests were distributed randomly to college students. Results showed no differences in mean item difficulty, mean discrimination or total test score, but a substantial reduction in time spent on three-option items. (Author/BS)
Descriptors: Achievement Tests, Higher Education, Multiple Choice Tests, Test Format
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Mentzer, Thomas L. – Educational and Psychological Measurement, 1982
Evidence of biases in the correct answers in multiple-choice test item files were found to include "all of the above" bias in which that answer was correct more than 25 percent of the time, and a bias that the longest answer was correct too frequently. Seven bias types were studied. (Author/CM)
Descriptors: Educational Testing, Higher Education, Multiple Choice Tests, Psychology
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Plake, Barbara S.; Huntley, Renee M. – Educational and Psychological Measurement, 1984
Two studies examined the effect of making the correct answer of a multiple choice test item grammatically consistent with the item. American College Testing Assessment experimental items were constructed to investigate grammatical compliance to investigate grammatical compliance for plural-singular and vowel-consonant agreement. Results suggest…
Descriptors: Grammar, Higher Education, Item Analysis, Multiple Choice Tests
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Wilcox, Rand R. – Educational and Psychological Measurement, 1982
When determining criterion-referenced test length, problems of guessing are shown to be more serious than expected. A new method of scoring is presented that corrects for guessing without assuming that guessing is random. Empirical investigations of the procedure are examined. Test length can be substantially reduced. (Author/CM)
Descriptors: Criterion Referenced Tests, Guessing (Tests), Multiple Choice Tests, Scoring
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Straton, Ralph G.; Catts, Ralph M. – Educational and Psychological Measurement, 1980
Multiple-choice tests composed entirely of two-, three-, or four-choice items were investigated. Results indicated that number of alternatives per item was inversely related to item difficulty, but directly related to item discrimination. Reliability and standard error of measurement of three-choice item tests was equivalent or superior.…
Descriptors: Difficulty Level, Error of Measurement, Foreign Countries, Higher Education
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Hanna, Gerald S.; Oaster, Thomas R. – Educational and Psychological Measurement, 1980
Certain kinds of multiple-choice reading comprehension questions may be answered correctly at the higher-than-chance level when they are administered without the accompanying passage. These high risk questions do not necessarily lead to passage dependence invalidity. They threaten but do not prove invalidity. (Author/CP)
Descriptors: High Schools, Multiple Choice Tests, Reading Comprehension, Reading Tests