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Bruno, James E.; Dirkzwager, A. – Educational and Psychological Measurement, 1995
Determining the optimal number of choices on a multiple-choice test is explored analytically from an information theory perspective. The analysis revealed that, in general, three choices seem optimal. This finding is in agreement with previous statistical and psychometric research. (SLD)
Descriptors: Distractors (Tests), Information Theory, Multiple Choice Tests, Psychometrics
Peer reviewed Peer reviewed
Knowles, Susan L.; Welch, Cynthia A. – Educational and Psychological Measurement, 1992
A meta-analysis of the difficulty and discrimination of the "none-of-the-above" (NOTA) test option was conducted with 12 articles (20 effect sizes) for difficulty and 7 studies (11 effect sizes) for discrimination. Findings indicate that using the NOTA option does not result in items of lesser quality. (SLD)
Descriptors: Difficulty Level, Effect Size, Meta Analysis, Multiple Choice Tests
Peer reviewed Peer reviewed
Cizek, Gregory J. – Educational and Psychological Measurement, 1994
Performance of a common set of test items on an examination in which the order of options for one test form was experimentally manipulated. Results for 759 medical specialty board examinees find that reordering item options results in significant but unpredictable effects on item difficulty. (SLD)
Descriptors: Change, Difficulty Level, Equated Scores, Licensing Examinations (Professions)
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Trevisan, Michael S.; And Others – Educational and Psychological Measurement, 1994
The reliabilities of 2-, 3-, 4-, and 5-choice tests were compared through an incremental-option model on a test taken by 154 high school seniors. Creating the test forms incrementally more closely approximates actual test construction. The nonsignificant differences among the option choices support the three-option item. (SLD)
Descriptors: Distractors (Tests), Estimation (Mathematics), High School Students, High Schools
Peer reviewed Peer reviewed
Trevisan, Michael S.; And Others – Educational and Psychological Measurement, 1991
The reliability and validity of multiple-choice tests were computed as a function of the number of options per item and student ability for 435 parochial high school juniors, who were administered the Washington Pre-College Test Battery. Results suggest the efficacy of the three-option item. (SLD)
Descriptors: Ability, Comparative Testing, Distractors (Tests), Grade Point Average
Peer reviewed Peer reviewed
Crehan, Kevin D.; And Others – Educational and Psychological Measurement, 1993
Studies with 220 college students found that multiple-choice test items with 3 items are more difficult than those with 4 items, and items with the none-of-these option are more difficult than those without this option. Neither format manipulation affected item discrimination. Implications for test construction are discussed. (SLD)
Descriptors: College Students, Comparative Testing, Difficulty Level, Distractors (Tests)
Peer reviewed Peer reviewed
Plake, Barbara S.; Huntley, Renee M. – Educational and Psychological Measurement, 1984
Two studies examined the effect of making the correct answer of a multiple choice test item grammatically consistent with the item. American College Testing Assessment experimental items were constructed to investigate grammatical compliance to investigate grammatical compliance for plural-singular and vowel-consonant agreement. Results suggest…
Descriptors: Grammar, Higher Education, Item Analysis, Multiple Choice Tests
Peer reviewed Peer reviewed
Wilcox, Rand R. – Educational and Psychological Measurement, 1982
When determining criterion-referenced test length, problems of guessing are shown to be more serious than expected. A new method of scoring is presented that corrects for guessing without assuming that guessing is random. Empirical investigations of the procedure are examined. Test length can be substantially reduced. (Author/CM)
Descriptors: Criterion Referenced Tests, Guessing (Tests), Multiple Choice Tests, Scoring