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Gwet, Kilem L. – Educational and Psychological Measurement, 2021
Cohen's kappa coefficient was originally proposed for two raters only, and it later extended to an arbitrarily large number of raters to become what is known as Fleiss' generalized kappa. Fleiss' generalized kappa and its large-sample variance are still widely used by researchers and were implemented in several software packages, including, among…
Descriptors: Sample Size, Statistical Analysis, Interrater Reliability, Computation
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Trafimow, David; Wang, Cong; Wang, Tonghui – Educational and Psychological Measurement, 2020
Previous researchers have proposed the a priori procedure, whereby the researcher specifies, prior to data collection, how closely she wishes the sample means to approach corresponding population means, and the degree of confidence of meeting the specification. However, an important limitation of previous research is that researchers sometimes are…
Descriptors: Sampling, Statistical Analysis, Equations (Mathematics), Differences
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Ulitzsch, Esther; von Davier, Matthias; Pohl, Steffi – Educational and Psychological Measurement, 2020
So far, modeling approaches for not-reached items have considered one single underlying process. However, missing values at the end of a test can occur for a variety of reasons. On the one hand, examinees may not reach the end of a test due to time limits and lack of working speed. On the other hand, examinees may not attempt all items and quit…
Descriptors: Item Response Theory, Test Items, Response Style (Tests), Computer Assisted Testing
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Nicewander, W. Alan – Educational and Psychological Measurement, 2019
This inquiry is focused on three indicators of the precision of measurement--conditional on fixed values of ?, the latent variable of item response theory (IRT). The indicators that are compared are (1) The traditional, conditional standard errors, s(eX|?) = CSEM; (2) the IRT-based conditional standard errors, s[subscript irt](eX|?)=C[subscript…
Descriptors: Measurement, Accuracy, Scores, Error of Measurement
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Jordan, Pascal; Spiess, Martin – Educational and Psychological Measurement, 2019
Factor loadings and item discrimination parameters play a key role in scale construction. A multitude of heuristics regarding their interpretation are hardwired into practice--for example, neglecting low loadings and assigning items to exactly one scale. We challenge the common sense interpretation of these parameters by providing counterexamples…
Descriptors: Test Construction, Test Items, Item Response Theory, Factor Structure
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Zumbo, Bruno D.; Kroc, Edward – Educational and Psychological Measurement, 2019
Chalmers recently published a critique of the use of ordinal a[alpha] proposed in Zumbo et al. as a measure of test reliability in certain research settings. In this response, we take up the task of refuting Chalmers' critique. We identify three broad misconceptions that characterize Chalmers' criticisms: (1) confusing assumptions with…
Descriptors: Test Reliability, Statistical Analysis, Misconceptions, Mathematical Models
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Ferrando, Pere Joan; Lorenzo-Seva, Urbano – Educational and Psychological Measurement, 2019
Many psychometric measures yield data that are compatible with (a) an essentially unidimensional factor analysis solution and (b) a correlated-factor solution. Deciding which of these structures is the most appropriate and useful is of considerable importance, and various procedures have been proposed to help in this decision. The only fully…
Descriptors: Validity, Models, Correlation, Factor Analysis
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Ferrando, Pere J.; Lorenzo-Seva, Urbano – Educational and Psychological Measurement, 2019
Measures initially designed to be single-trait often yield data that are compatible with both an essentially unidimensional factor-analysis (FA) solution and a correlated-factors solution. For these cases, this article proposes an approach aimed at providing information for deciding which of the two solutions is the most appropriate and useful.…
Descriptors: Factor Analysis, Computation, Reliability, Goodness of Fit
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Raykov, Tenko; Marcoulides, George A. – Educational and Psychological Measurement, 2018
This article outlines a procedure for examining the degree to which a common factor may be dominating additional factors in a multicomponent measuring instrument consisting of binary items. The procedure rests on an application of the latent variable modeling methodology and accounts for the discrete nature of the manifest indicators. The method…
Descriptors: Measurement Techniques, Factor Analysis, Item Response Theory, Likert Scales
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Chalmers, R. Philip – Educational and Psychological Measurement, 2018
This article discusses the theoretical and practical contributions of Zumbo, Gadermann, and Zeisser's family of ordinal reliability statistics. Implications, interpretation, recommendations, and practical applications regarding their ordinal measures, particularly ordinal alpha, are discussed. General misconceptions relating to this family of…
Descriptors: Misconceptions, Test Theory, Test Reliability, Statistics
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Liu, Ren; Qian, Hong; Luo, Xiao; Woo, Ada – Educational and Psychological Measurement, 2018
Subscore reporting under item response theory models has always been a challenge partly because the test length of each subdomain is limited for precisely locating individuals on multiple continua. Diagnostic classification models (DCMs), providing a pass/fail decision and associated probability of pass on each subdomain, are promising…
Descriptors: Classification, Probability, Pass Fail Grading, Scores
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Raykov, Tenko; Goldammer, Philippe; Marcoulides, George A.; Li, Tatyana; Menold, Natalja – Educational and Psychological Measurement, 2018
A readily applicable procedure is discussed that allows evaluation of the discrepancy between the popular coefficient alpha and the reliability coefficient of a scale with second-order factorial structure that is frequently of relevance in empirical educational and psychological research. The approach is developed within the framework of the…
Descriptors: Test Reliability, Factor Structure, Statistical Analysis, Computation
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Raykov, Tenko; Marcoulides, George A.; Li, Tenglong – Educational and Psychological Measurement, 2018
This note extends the results in the 2016 article by Raykov, Marcoulides, and Li to the case of correlated errors in a set of observed measures subjected to principal component analysis. It is shown that when at least two measures are fallible, the probability is zero for any principal component--and in particular for the first principal…
Descriptors: Factor Analysis, Error of Measurement, Correlation, Reliability
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Liu, Ren – Educational and Psychological Measurement, 2018
Attribute structure is an explicit way of presenting the relationship between attributes in diagnostic measurement. The specification of attribute structures directly affects the classification accuracy resulted from psychometric modeling. This study provides a conceptual framework for understanding misspecifications of attribute structures. Under…
Descriptors: Diagnostic Tests, Classification, Test Construction, Relationship
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Paek, Insu; Cui, Mengyao; Öztürk Gübes, Nese; Yang, Yanyun – Educational and Psychological Measurement, 2018
The purpose of this article is twofold. The first is to provide evaluative information on the recovery of model parameters and their standard errors for the two-parameter item response theory (IRT) model using different estimation methods by Mplus. The second is to provide easily accessible information for practitioners, instructors, and students…
Descriptors: Item Response Theory, Computation, Factor Analysis, Statistical Analysis
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