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Sinharay, Sandip – Educational and Psychological Measurement, 2022
Administrative problems such as computer malfunction and power outage occasionally lead to missing item scores and hence to incomplete data on mastery tests such as the AP and U.S. Medical Licensing examinations. Investigators are often interested in estimating the probabilities of passing of the examinees with incomplete data on mastery tests.…
Descriptors: Mastery Tests, Computer Assisted Testing, Probability, Test Wiseness
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Raykov, Tenko; Menold, Natalja; Leer, Jane – Educational and Psychological Measurement, 2022
Two- and three-level designs in educational and psychological research can involve entire populations of Level-3 and possibly Level-2 units, such as schools and educational districts nested within a given state, or neighborhoods and counties in a state. Such a design is of increasing relevance in empirical research owing to the growing popularity…
Descriptors: Hierarchical Linear Modeling, Computation, Statistical Analysis, Research Design
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Dimitrov, Dimiter M. – Educational and Psychological Measurement, 2022
Proposed is a new method of standard setting referred to as response vector for mastery (RVM) method. Under the RVM method, the task of panelists that participate in the standard setting process does not involve conceptualization of a borderline examinee and probability judgments as it is the case with the Angoff and bookmark methods. Also, the…
Descriptors: Standard Setting (Scoring), Cutting Scores, Computation, Mastery Learning
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Raykov, Tenko; DiStefano, Christine – Educational and Psychological Measurement, 2022
A latent variable modeling-based procedure is discussed that permits to readily point and interval estimate the design effect index in multilevel settings using widely circulated software. The method provides useful information about the relationship of important parameter standard errors when accounting for clustering effects relative to…
Descriptors: Hierarchical Linear Modeling, Correlation, Evaluation, Research Design
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Raykov, Tenko; Calvocoressi, Lisa – Educational and Psychological Measurement, 2021
A procedure for evaluating the average R-squared index for a given set of observed variables in an exploratory factor analysis model is discussed. The method can be used as an effective aid in the process of model choice with respect to the number of factors underlying the interrelationships among studied measures. The approach is developed within…
Descriptors: Factor Analysis, Structural Equation Models, Statistical Analysis, Selection
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Gwet, Kilem L. – Educational and Psychological Measurement, 2021
Cohen's kappa coefficient was originally proposed for two raters only, and it later extended to an arbitrarily large number of raters to become what is known as Fleiss' generalized kappa. Fleiss' generalized kappa and its large-sample variance are still widely used by researchers and were implemented in several software packages, including, among…
Descriptors: Sample Size, Statistical Analysis, Interrater Reliability, Computation
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Ulitzsch, Esther; von Davier, Matthias; Pohl, Steffi – Educational and Psychological Measurement, 2020
So far, modeling approaches for not-reached items have considered one single underlying process. However, missing values at the end of a test can occur for a variety of reasons. On the one hand, examinees may not reach the end of a test due to time limits and lack of working speed. On the other hand, examinees may not attempt all items and quit…
Descriptors: Item Response Theory, Test Items, Response Style (Tests), Computer Assisted Testing
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Trafimow, David; Wang, Cong; Wang, Tonghui – Educational and Psychological Measurement, 2020
Previous researchers have proposed the a priori procedure, whereby the researcher specifies, prior to data collection, how closely she wishes the sample means to approach corresponding population means, and the degree of confidence of meeting the specification. However, an important limitation of previous research is that researchers sometimes are…
Descriptors: Sampling, Statistical Analysis, Equations (Mathematics), Differences
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Ferrando, Pere J.; Lorenzo-Seva, Urbano – Educational and Psychological Measurement, 2019
Measures initially designed to be single-trait often yield data that are compatible with both an essentially unidimensional factor-analysis (FA) solution and a correlated-factors solution. For these cases, this article proposes an approach aimed at providing information for deciding which of the two solutions is the most appropriate and useful.…
Descriptors: Factor Analysis, Computation, Reliability, Goodness of Fit
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Nicewander, W. Alan – Educational and Psychological Measurement, 2019
This inquiry is focused on three indicators of the precision of measurement--conditional on fixed values of ?, the latent variable of item response theory (IRT). The indicators that are compared are (1) The traditional, conditional standard errors, s(eX|?) = CSEM; (2) the IRT-based conditional standard errors, s[subscript irt](eX|?)=C[subscript…
Descriptors: Measurement, Accuracy, Scores, Error of Measurement
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Jordan, Pascal; Spiess, Martin – Educational and Psychological Measurement, 2019
Factor loadings and item discrimination parameters play a key role in scale construction. A multitude of heuristics regarding their interpretation are hardwired into practice--for example, neglecting low loadings and assigning items to exactly one scale. We challenge the common sense interpretation of these parameters by providing counterexamples…
Descriptors: Test Construction, Test Items, Item Response Theory, Factor Structure
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Zumbo, Bruno D.; Kroc, Edward – Educational and Psychological Measurement, 2019
Chalmers recently published a critique of the use of ordinal a[alpha] proposed in Zumbo et al. as a measure of test reliability in certain research settings. In this response, we take up the task of refuting Chalmers' critique. We identify three broad misconceptions that characterize Chalmers' criticisms: (1) confusing assumptions with…
Descriptors: Test Reliability, Statistical Analysis, Misconceptions, Mathematical Models
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Ferrando, Pere Joan; Lorenzo-Seva, Urbano – Educational and Psychological Measurement, 2019
Many psychometric measures yield data that are compatible with (a) an essentially unidimensional factor analysis solution and (b) a correlated-factor solution. Deciding which of these structures is the most appropriate and useful is of considerable importance, and various procedures have been proposed to help in this decision. The only fully…
Descriptors: Validity, Models, Correlation, Factor Analysis
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Raykov, Tenko; Marcoulides, George A. – Educational and Psychological Measurement, 2018
This article outlines a procedure for examining the degree to which a common factor may be dominating additional factors in a multicomponent measuring instrument consisting of binary items. The procedure rests on an application of the latent variable modeling methodology and accounts for the discrete nature of the manifest indicators. The method…
Descriptors: Measurement Techniques, Factor Analysis, Item Response Theory, Likert Scales
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Chalmers, R. Philip – Educational and Psychological Measurement, 2018
This article discusses the theoretical and practical contributions of Zumbo, Gadermann, and Zeisser's family of ordinal reliability statistics. Implications, interpretation, recommendations, and practical applications regarding their ordinal measures, particularly ordinal alpha, are discussed. General misconceptions relating to this family of…
Descriptors: Misconceptions, Test Theory, Test Reliability, Statistics
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