ERIC Number: EJ1217422
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2019-Jun
Abstractor: As Provided
Tracing Enhances Recall and Transfer of Knowledge of the Water Cycle
Tang, Michael; Ginns, Paul; Jacobson, Michael J.
Educational Psychology Review, v31 n2 p439-455 Jun 2019
Cognitive load theory has incorporated evolutionary perspectives to consider how "biologically primary knowledge" (such as physical movement and pointing), acquired through evolutionary processes, might support the acquisition of "biologically secondary knowledge" (such as reading or writing), requiring explicit teaching. Tracing (a physical movement) against a surface with the index finger may be one form of biologically primary knowledge that can enhance learning biologically secondary knowledge. We investigated whether tracing lesson materials (about the water cycle) presented on A4 pieces of paper in an initial phase, then on an A1 poster in a subsequent phase, would affect primary school students' reports of intrinsic versus extraneous cognitive load, as well as recall and transfer test performance. Students who traced while studying reported lower extraneous cognitive load than those who simply studied and scored higher on subsequent recall and transfer tests. Considerations for instructional designers, educators and researchers are discussed.
Descriptors: Cognitive Processes, Difficulty Level, Theories, Biology, Water, Science Instruction, Elementary School Students, Recall (Psychology), Transfer of Training, Motion, Learning Strategies
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Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Evaluative
Education Level: Elementary Education
Authoring Institution: N/A