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Ashman, Greg; Kalyuga, Slava; Sweller, John – Educational Psychology Review, 2020
The concept of productive failure posits that a problem-solving phase prior to explicit instruction is more effective than explicit instruction followed by problem-solving. This prediction was tested with Year 5 primary school students learning about light energy efficiency. Two, fully randomised, controlled experiments were conducted. In the…
Descriptors: Problem Solving, Teaching Methods, Science Instruction, Elementary School Science
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Dargue, Nicole; Sweller, Naomi – Educational Psychology Review, 2020
Through providing an external support to speech, gesture observation may benefit a student's learning in a variety of areas, including narrative comprehension. Across two studies, we investigated factors that could moderate when gestures are most beneficial to narrative comprehension, including gesture type, task difficulty, and age, in order to…
Descriptors: Nonverbal Communication, Speech Communication, Difficulty Level, Age Differences
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Ober, Teresa M.; Brooks, Patricia J.; Homer, Bruce D.; Rindskopf, David – Educational Psychology Review, 2020
Previous meta-analyses highlight the role of executive functions (EF), encompassing working memory updating, task-switching, and inhibitory control, in reading comprehension, but have not established their role in decoding. Decoding is defined as the use of orthographic patterns to access oral pronunciations. According to the dual route model,…
Descriptors: Executive Function, Decoding (Reading), Children, Adolescents
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Rau, Martina A. – Educational Psychology Review, 2020
In most STEM instruction, students interact with visual representations, which can be presented in either in a physical or a virtual mode or in a blended form that combines both modes. While much research has compared the effects of physical and virtual representations on students' learning, the field is far from being able to predict when and why…
Descriptors: Learning Theories, Visual Aids, STEM Education, Blended Learning
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Lespiau, Florence; Tricot, André – Educational Psychology Review, 2019
According to Geary's evolutionary approach, humans are able to easily acquire primary knowledge and, with more efforts, secondary knowledge. The present study investigates how primary knowledge contents can facilitate the learning of formal logical rules, i.e., secondary knowledge. Framing formal logical problems in evolutionary salient contexts…
Descriptors: Epistemology, Learning Motivation, Abstract Reasoning, Logical Thinking
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Leppink, Jimmie; Pérez-Fuster, Patricia – Educational Psychology Review, 2019
Self-rated mental effort has been and continues to be the most widely used measure of cognitive load. This single-item measure is often used as a predictor variable in linear models for predicting performance or some other response variable. While an advantage of linear models is that they are fairly easy to understand, they fall short when the…
Descriptors: Cognitive Processes, Difficulty Level, Predictor Variables, Time on Task
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Mavilidi, Myrto F.; Zhong, Lijia – Educational Psychology Review, 2019
This manuscript presents an interview with John Sweller, Fred Paas, and Jeroen van Merrienboer about cognitive load theory. It presents the views of these main founders of the theory on the progress from the first major publication on the theory in 1998 (Sweller, Van Merrienboer, & Paas, "Educational Psychology Review," 10(3),…
Descriptors: Cognitive Processes, Difficulty Level, Theories, Barriers
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Likourezos, Vicki; Kalyuga, Slava; Sweller, John – Educational Psychology Review, 2019
Based on cognitive load theory, this paper reports on two experiments investigating the variability effect that occurs when learners' exposure to highly variable tasks results in superior test performance. It was hypothesised that the effect was more likely to occur using high rather than low levels of guidance and testing more knowledgeable than…
Descriptors: Cognitive Processes, Difficulty Level, Testing, Knowledge Level
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Rey, Günter Daniel; Beege, Maik; Nebel, Steve; Wirzberger, Maria; Schmitt, Tobias H.; Schneider, Sascha – Educational Psychology Review, 2019
The segmenting effect states that people learn better when multimedia instructions are presented in (meaningful and coherent) learner-paced segments, rather than as continuous units. This meta-analysis contains 56 investigations including 88 pairwise comparisons and reveals a significant segmenting effect with small to medium effects for retention…
Descriptors: Learning Processes, Multimedia Instruction, Teaching Methods, Recall (Psychology)
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Sepp, Stoo; Howard, Steven J.; Tindall-Ford, Sharon; Agostinho, Shirley; Paas, Fred – Educational Psychology Review, 2019
Cognitive load theory (CLT) applies what is known about human cognitive architecture to the study of learning and instruction, to generate insights into the characteristics and conditions of effective instruction and learning. Recent developments in CLT suggest that the human motor system plays an important role in cognition and learning; however,…
Descriptors: Cognitive Processes, Difficulty Level, Psychomotor Skills, Short Term Memory
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Leahy, Wayne; Sweller, John – Educational Psychology Review, 2019
The testing effect occurs when students, given information to learn and then practice during a test, perform better on a subsequent content post-test than students who restudy the information as a substitute for the practice test. The effect is often weaker or reversed if immediate rather than delayed post-tests are used. The weakening may be due…
Descriptors: Cognitive Processes, Difficulty Level, Theories, Short Term Memory
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Feldon, David F.; Callan, Gregory; Juth, Stephanie; Jeong, Soojeong – Educational Psychology Review, 2019
Research on cognitive load theory (CLT) has focused primarily on identifying the mechanisms and strategies that enhance cognitive learning outcomes. However, CLT researchers have given less attention to the ways in which cognitive load may interact with the motivational and emotional aspects of learning. Motivational beliefs have typically been…
Descriptors: Cognitive Processes, Difficulty Level, Emotional Response, Student Motivation
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Sweller, John; van Merriënboer, Jeroen J. G.; Paas, Fred – Educational Psychology Review, 2019
Cognitive load theory was introduced in the 1980s as an instructional design theory based on several uncontroversial aspects of human cognitive architecture. Our knowledge of many of the characteristics of working memory, long-term memory and the relations between them had been well-established for many decades prior to the introduction of the…
Descriptors: Difficulty Level, Cognitive Processes, Instructional Design, Short Term Memory
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Tang, Michael; Ginns, Paul; Jacobson, Michael J. – Educational Psychology Review, 2019
Cognitive load theory has incorporated evolutionary perspectives to consider how "biologically primary knowledge" (such as physical movement and pointing), acquired through evolutionary processes, might support the acquisition of "biologically secondary knowledge" (such as reading or writing), requiring explicit teaching.…
Descriptors: Cognitive Processes, Difficulty Level, Theories, Biology
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Castro-Alonso, Juan C.; Wong, Mona; Adesope, Olusola O.; Ayres, Paul; Paas, Fred – Educational Psychology Review, 2019
Studies comparing the instructional effectiveness of dynamic versus static visualizations have produced mixed results. In this work, we investigated whether gender imbalance in the participant samples of these studies may have contributed to the mixed results. We conducted a meta-analysis of randomized experiments in which groups of students…
Descriptors: Visualization, Research Methodology, Motion, Biology
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