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Chen, Ouhao; Castro-Alonso, Juan C.; Paas, Fred; Sweller, John – Educational Psychology Review, 2018
Depletion of limited working memory resources may occur following extensive mental effort resulting in decreased performance compared to conditions requiring less extensive mental effort. This "depletion effect" can be incorporated into cognitive load theory that is concerned with using the properties of human cognitive architecture,…
Descriptors: Cognitive Processes, Difficulty Level, Short Term Memory, Elementary School Students
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Jiang, Dayu; Kalyuga, Slava; Sweller, John – Educational Psychology Review, 2018
The expertise reversal effect occurs when instruction that is effective for novice learners is ineffective or even counterproductive for more expert learners. Four experiments designed to explore the expertise reversal effect in the field of teaching and learning foreign language listening skills were conducted. Three instructional formats…
Descriptors: Second Language Learning, Second Language Instruction, Listening Skills, English (Second Language)
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Chen, Ouhao; Kalyuga, Slava; Sweller, John – Educational Psychology Review, 2017
Within the framework of cognitive load theory, the element interactivity and the expertise reversal effects usually are not treated as closely related effects. We argue that the two effects may be intertwined with the expertise reversal effect constituting a particular example of the element interactivity effect. Specifically, the element…
Descriptors: Expertise, Cognitive Processes, Difficulty Level, Interaction
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Leahy, Wayne; Hanham, José; Sweller, John – Educational Psychology Review, 2015
The testing effect occurs when learners who are tested rather than relearning material perform better on a final test than those who relearn. Based on cognitive load theory, it was predicted that the testing effect may not be obtained when the material being learned is high in element interactivity. Three experiments investigated conditions of the…
Descriptors: Problem Solving, Testing, Cognitive Processes, Difficulty Level
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van Gog, Tamara; Sweller, John – Educational Psychology Review, 2015
The testing effect is a finding from cognitive psychology with relevance for education. It shows that after an initial study period, taking a practice test improves long-term retention compared to not taking a test and--more interestingly--compared to restudying the learning material. Boundary conditions of the effect that have received attention…
Descriptors: Testing, Learning, Retention (Psychology), Instructional Materials
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Tricot, André; Sweller, John – Educational Psychology Review, 2014
Domain-general cognitive knowledge has frequently been used to explain skill when domain-specific knowledge held in long-term memory may provide a better explanation. An emphasis on domain-general knowledge may be misplaced if domain-specific knowledge is the primary factor driving acquired intellectual skills. We trace the long history of…
Descriptors: Skills, Expertise, Long Term Memory, Cognitive Processes
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Paas, Fred; Sweller, John – Educational Psychology Review, 2012
Cognitive load theory is intended to provide instructional strategies derived from experimental, cognitive load effects. Each effect is based on our knowledge of human cognitive architecture, primarily the limited capacity and duration of a human working memory. These limitations are ameliorated by changes in long-term memory associated with…
Descriptors: Teaching Methods, Educational Psychology, Memory, Long Term Memory
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Sweller, John – Educational Psychology Review, 2010
In cognitive load theory, element interactivity has been used as the basic, defining mechanism of intrinsic cognitive load for many years. In this article, it is suggested that element interactivity underlies extraneous cognitive load as well. By defining extraneous cognitive load in terms of element interactivity, a distinct relation between…
Descriptors: Cognitive Development, Educational Theories, Interaction, Evaluation
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Paas, Fred; van Gog, Tamara; Sweller, John – Educational Psychology Review, 2010
Over the last few years, cognitive load theory has progressed and advanced rapidly. The articles in this special issue, which document those advances, are based on contributions to the 3rd International Cognitive Load Theory Conference (2009), Heerlen, The Netherlands. The articles of this special issue on cognitive load theory discuss new…
Descriptors: Educational Theories, Research Methodology, Foreign Countries, Conferences (Gatherings)
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Sweller, John – Educational Psychology Review, 2009
Cognitive load theory has been concerned primarily with techniques that will facilitate the acquisition by students of knowledge previously generated by others and deemed to be important by society. The initial generation of that knowledge, a creative process, has been largely ignored. The recent expansion of cognitive load theory's cognitive…
Descriptors: Creativity, Cognitive Ability, Cognitive Processes, Evolution
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van Gog, Tamara; Paas, Fred; Marcus, Nadine; Ayres, Paul; Sweller, John – Educational Psychology Review, 2009
Learning by observing and imitating others has long been recognized as constituting a powerful learning strategy for humans. Recent findings from neuroscience research, more specifically on the mirror neuron system, begin to provide insight into the neural bases of learning by observation and imitation. These findings are discussed here, along…
Descriptors: Learning Strategies, Imitation, Observational Learning, Brain
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van Merrienboer, Jeroen J. G.; Sweller, John – Educational Psychology Review, 2005
Traditionally, Cognitive Load Theory (CLT) has focused on instructional methods to decrease extraneous cognitive load so that available cognitive resources can be fully devoted to learning. This article strengthens the cognitive base of CLT by linking cognitive processes to the processes used by biological evolution. The article discusses recent…
Descriptors: Learning Theories, Teaching Methods, Instructional Design, Epistemology