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Chi, Michelene T. H.; Wylie, Ruth – Educational Psychologist, 2014
This article describes the ICAP framework that defines cognitive engagement activities on the basis of students' overt behaviors and proposes that engagement behaviors can be categorized and differentiated into one of four modes: "Interactive," "Constructive," "Active," and "Passive." The ICAP hypothesis…
Descriptors: Guidelines, Active Learning, Outcomes of Education, Learning Theories
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Chi, Michelene T. H.; VanLehn, Kurt A. – Educational Psychologist, 2012
Transfer is typically thought of as requiring individuals to "see" what is the same in the deep structure between a new target problem and a previously encountered source problem, even though the surface features may be dissimilar. We propose that experts can "see" the deep structure by considering the first-order interactions…
Descriptors: Expertise, Transfer of Training, Teaching Methods, Instructional Design
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Chi, Michelene T. H.; Brem, Sarah K. – Educational Psychologist, 2009
Ohlsson's proposal of resubsumption as the dominant process in conceptual, or nonmonotonic, change presents a worthy challenge to more established theories, such as Chi's theory of ontological shift. The two approaches differ primarily in that Ohlsson's theory emphasizes a process of learning in which narrower, more specific concepts are subsumed…
Descriptors: Educational Philosophy, Learning Processes, Developmental Psychology, Cognitive Psychology