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Levy, Roy – Educational Measurement: Issues and Practice, 2020
In this digital ITEMS module, Dr. Roy Levy describes Bayesian approaches to psychometric modeling. He discusses how Bayesian inference is a mechanism for reasoning in a probability-modeling framework and is well-suited to core problems in educational measurement: reasoning from student performances on an assessment to make inferences about their…
Descriptors: Bayesian Statistics, Psychometrics, Item Response Theory, Statistical Inference
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Leighton, Jacqueline P.; Lehman, Blair – Educational Measurement: Issues and Practice, 2020
In this digital ITEMS module, Dr. Jacqueline Leighton and Dr. Blair Lehman review differences between think-aloud interviews to measure problem-solving processes and cognitive labs to measure comprehension processes. Learners are introduced to historical, theoretical, and procedural differences between these methods and how to use and analyze…
Descriptors: Protocol Analysis, Interviews, Problem Solving, Cognitive Processes
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Leventhal, Brian; Ames, Allison – Educational Measurement: Issues and Practice, 2020
In this digital ITEMS module, Dr. Brian Leventhal and Dr. Allison Ames provide an overview of "Monte Carlo simulation studies" (MCSS) in "item response theory" (IRT). MCSS are utilized for a variety of reasons, one of the most compelling being that they can be used when analytic solutions are impractical or nonexistent because…
Descriptors: Item Response Theory, Monte Carlo Methods, Simulation, Test Items
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Bunch, Michael B. – Educational Measurement: Issues and Practice, 2020
In this digital ITEMS module, Dr. Michael Bunch provides an in-depth, step-by-step look at how standard setting is done. It does not focus on any specific procedure or methodology (e.g., modified Angoff, bookmark, and body of work) but on the practical tasks that must be completed for any standard setting activity. Dr. Bunch carries the…
Descriptors: Standard Setting, Cutting Scores, Scores, Reports
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Sireci, Stephen G. – Educational Measurement: Issues and Practice, 2020
Educational tests are standardized so that all examinees are tested on the same material, under the same testing conditions, and with the same scoring protocols. This uniformity is designed to provide a level "playing field" for all examinees so that the test is "the same" for everyone. Thus, standardization is designed to…
Descriptors: Standards, Educational Assessment, Culture Fair Tests, Scoring
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Bond, Lloyd – Educational Measurement: Issues and Practice, 2020
Three examples of extant testing practices (i.e., a classroom instructor's use of a simple pre-post design, the practice of teaching to the test, and the think aloud verbal protocol) are discussed to illustrate the contention that assessment in the service of testing and learning does not necessarily involve radically different assessment…
Descriptors: Testing, Test Preparation, Teaching Methods, Protocol Analysis
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Klugman, Emma M.; Ho, Andrew D. – Educational Measurement: Issues and Practice, 2020
State testing programs regularly release previously administered test items to the public. We provide an open-source recipe for state, district, and school assessment coordinators to combine these items flexibly to produce scores linked to established state score scales. These would enable estimation of student score distributions and achievement…
Descriptors: Testing Programs, State Programs, Test Items, Scores
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Harring, Jeffrey R.; Johnson, Tessa L. – Educational Measurement: Issues and Practice, 2020
In this digital ITEMS module, Dr. Jeffrey Harring and Ms. Tessa Johnson introduce the linear mixed effects (LME) model as a flexible general framework for simultaneously modeling continuous repeated measures data with a scientifically defensible function that adequately summarizes both individual change as well as the average response. The module…
Descriptors: Educational Assessment, Data Analysis, Longitudinal Studies, Case Studies
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Gregg, Nikole; Leventhal, Brian C. – Educational Measurement: Issues and Practice, 2020
In this digital ITEMS module, Nikole Gregg and Dr. Brian Leventhal discuss strategies to ensure data visualizations achieve graphical excellence. Data visualizations are commonly used by measurement professionals to communicate results to examinees, the public, educators, and other stakeholders. To do so effectively, it is important that these…
Descriptors: Data Analysis, Evidence Based Practice, Visualization, Test Results
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Lottridge, Sue; Burkhardt, Amy; Boyer, Michelle – Educational Measurement: Issues and Practice, 2020
In this digital ITEMS module, Dr. Sue Lottridge, Amy Burkhardt, and Dr. Michelle Boyer provide an overview of automated scoring. Automated scoring is the use of computer algorithms to score unconstrained open-ended test items by mimicking human scoring. The use of automated scoring is increasing in educational assessment programs because it allows…
Descriptors: Computer Assisted Testing, Scoring, Automation, Educational Assessment
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Pellegrino, James W. – Educational Measurement: Issues and Practice, 2020
Professor Gordon argues for a significant reorientation in the focus and impact of assessment in education. For the types of assessment activities that he advocates to prosper and positively impact education, serious attention must be paid to two important topics: (1) the conceptual underpinnings of the assessment practices we develop and use to…
Descriptors: Educational Assessment, Teaching Methods, Learning Processes, Validity
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Camara, Wayne – Educational Measurement: Issues and Practice, 2020
In early spring 2020 the vast majority of US colleges and schools closed for the year due to COVID-19 with no clear direction on when or how these institutions will reopen for in-person instruction. School closures and the associated health concerns haulted large scale admissions testing and required alternative models such as remote proctoring at…
Descriptors: Measurement, COVID-19, Pandemics, School Closing
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Langenfeld, Thomas – Educational Measurement: Issues and Practice, 2020
The COVID-19 pandemic has accelerated the shift toward online learning solutions necessitating the need for developing online assessment solutions. Vendors offer online assessment delivery systems with varying security levels designed to minimize unauthorized behaviors. Combating cheating and securing assessment content, however, is not solely the…
Descriptors: Computer Assisted Testing, Justice, COVID-19, Pandemics
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Cui, Zhongmin – Educational Measurement: Issues and Practice, 2020
Thanks to COVID-19, schools were closed and tests were canceled. The result is that we may not see test-taking data typically seen before. For some analyses, sample sizes may not meet the minimum requirement. For others, the sample of test-takers may be different from previous years. In some situation, there may be no data at all. What do we do in…
Descriptors: Testing, Sample Size, Data Collection, COVID-19
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Jiao, Hong; Lissitz, Robert W. – Educational Measurement: Issues and Practice, 2020
This paper discusses the unprecedented challenges and possible directions in which the field of educational assessment is going after the outbreak of COVID-19. Though the pandemic leads to a lot of pressure related to instruction, learning, and assessment, it also provides opportunities that are likely to require changes to the current theories…
Descriptors: COVID-19, Pandemics, Educational Assessment, Educational Change
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