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Shepard, L. A.; Penuel, W. R.; Pellegrino, J. W. – Educational Measurement: Issues and Practice, 2018
To support equitable and ambitious teaching practices, classroom assessment design must be grounded in a research-based theory of learning. Compared to other theories, sociocultural theory offers a more powerful, integrative account of how motivational aspects of learning--such as self-regulation, self-efficacy, sense of belonging, and…
Descriptors: Educational Assessment, Formative Evaluation, Grading, Learning Theories
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Wilson, Mark – Educational Measurement: Issues and Practice, 2018
This article is a written version of the Presidential Address I gave at the annual meeting of the National Council on Measurement in Education (NCME) in April 2017. It is a call to NCME members (and others who read this, of course) to rebalance their focus so that classroom assessments are seen as being at least as important as large-scale…
Descriptors: Educational Assessment, Student Evaluation, Alignment (Education), Educational Practices
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Johnson, Evelyn S.; Crawford, Angela; Moylan, Laura A.; Zheng, Yuzhu – Educational Measurement: Issues and Practice, 2018
The evidence-centered design framework was used to create a special education teacher observation system, Recognizing Effective Special Education Teachers. Extensive reviews of research informed the domain analysis and modeling stages, and led to the conceptual framework in which effective special education teaching is operationalized as the…
Descriptors: Evidence Based Practice, Special Education Teachers, Observation, Disabilities
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Koretz, D.; Langi, M. – Educational Measurement: Issues and Practice, 2018
Most studies predicting college performance from high-school grade point average (HSGPA) and college admissions test scores use single-level regression models that conflate relationships within and between high schools. Because grading standards vary among high schools, these relationships are likely to differ within and between schools. We used…
Descriptors: Prediction, High School Students, Grade Point Average, Scores
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Sinharay, Sandip – Educational Measurement: Issues and Practice, 2018
The choice of anchor tests is crucial in applications of the nonequivalent groups with anchor test design of equating. Sinharay and Holland (2006, 2007) suggested "miditests," which are anchor tests that are content-representative and have the same mean item difficulty as the total test but have a smaller spread of item difficulties.…
Descriptors: Test Content, Difficulty Level, Test Items, Test Construction
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Hancock, Gregory R.; An, Ji – Educational Measurement: Issues and Practice, 2018
In this ITEMS module, we frame the topic of scale reliability within a "confirmatory factor analysis" and "structural equation modeling" (SEM) context and address some of the limitations of Cronbach's a. This modeling approach has two major advantages: (1) it allows researchers to make explicit the relation between their items…
Descriptors: Reliability, Structural Equation Models, Factor Analysis, Correlation
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Goeman, J. J.; De Jong, N. H. – Educational Measurement: Issues and Practice, 2018
Many researchers use Cronbach's alpha to demonstrate internal consistency, even though it has been shown numerous times that Cronbach's alpha is not suitable for this. Because the intention of questionnaire and test constructers is to summarize the test by its overall sum score, we advocate summability, which we define as the proportion of total…
Descriptors: Tests, Scores, Questionnaires, Measurement
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Kosh, Audra E.; Greene, Jeffrey A.; Murphy, P. Karen; Burdick, Hal; Firetto, Carla M.; Elmore, Jeff – Educational Measurement: Issues and Practice, 2018
We explored the feasibility of using automated scoring to assess upper-elementary students' reading ability through analysis of transcripts of students' small-group discussions about texts. Participants included 35 fourth-grade students across two classrooms that engaged in a literacy intervention called Quality Talk. During the course of one…
Descriptors: Computer Assisted Testing, Small Group Instruction, Group Discussion, Student Evaluation
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An, Chen; Braun, Henry; Walsh, Mary E. – Educational Measurement: Issues and Practice, 2018
Making causal inferences from a quasi-experiment is difficult. Sensitivity analysis approaches to address hidden selection bias thus have gained popularity. This study serves as an introduction to a simple but practical form of sensitivity analysis using Monte Carlo simulation procedures. We examine estimated treatment effects for a school-based…
Descriptors: Statistical Inference, Intervention, Program Effectiveness, Quasiexperimental Design
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Lewis, Charlie; Chajewski, Michael; Rupp, André A. – Educational Measurement: Issues and Practice, 2018
In this ITEMS module, we provide a two-part introduction to the topic of reliability from the perspective of "classical test theory" (CTT). In the first part, which is directed primarily at beginning learners, we review and build on the content presented in the original didactic ITEMS article by Traub and Rowley (1991). Specifically, we…
Descriptors: Test Reliability, Test Theory, Computation, Data Collection
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Liu, Ou Lydia – Educational Measurement: Issues and Practice, 2017
Student learning outcomes assessment has been increasingly used in U.S. higher education institutions over the last 10 years, partly fueled by the recommendation from the Spellings Commission that institutions need to demonstrate more direct evidence of student learning. To respond to the Commission's call, various accountability initiatives have…
Descriptors: College Outcomes Assessment, Accountability, Higher Education, Educational Improvement
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O'Leary, Timothy M.; Hattie, John A. C.; Griffin, Patrick – Educational Measurement: Issues and Practice, 2017
Validity is the most fundamental consideration in test development. Understandably, much time, effort, and money is spent in its pursuit. Central to the modern conception of validity are the interpretations made, and uses planned, on the basis of test scores. There is, unfortunately, however, evidence that test users have difficulty understanding…
Descriptors: Test Interpretation, Scores, Test Validity, Evidence
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Newton, Paul E. – Educational Measurement: Issues and Practice, 2017
The dominant narrative for assessment design seems to reflect a strong, albeit largely implicit undercurrent of purpose purism, which idealizes the principle that assessment design should be driven by a single assessment purpose. With a particular focus on achievement assessments, the present article questions the tenability of purpose purism,…
Descriptors: Evaluation Methods, Test Construction, Instructional Design, Decision Making
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Wind, Stefanie A. – Educational Measurement: Issues and Practice, 2017
Mokken scale analysis (MSA) is a probabilistic-nonparametric approach to item response theory (IRT) that can be used to evaluate fundamental measurement properties with less strict assumptions than parametric IRT models. This instructional module provides an introduction to MSA as a probabilistic-nonparametric framework in which to explore…
Descriptors: Probability, Nonparametric Statistics, Item Response Theory, Scaling
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Shu, Siwen; Kuncel, Nathan R.; Sackett, Paul R. – Educational Measurement: Issues and Practice, 2017
Extensive research has examined the validity and fairness of standardized tests in academic admissions. However, due to their underrepresentation in higher education, American Indians have gained much less attention in this research. In the present study, we examined for American Indian students (1) group differences on SAT scores, (2) the…
Descriptors: American Indian Students, College Admission, College Entrance Examinations, Academic Achievement
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