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Chen, Junjun – Educational Management Administration & Leadership, 2021
The current study aimed to develop and validate a Principal Emotion Inventory (PEI). Equipped with the theoretical-empirical strategy of test construction, this development and validation procedure consists of one expert survey and five sequential empirical studies with sufficient samples of participating principals based on existing emotion…
Descriptors: Test Construction, Test Validity, Principals, Psychological Patterns
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Shyman, Eric – Educational Management Administration & Leadership, 2011
Two theories of occupational stress are often cited as being most supported by research: the job strain model (JSM) and the effort--reward imbalance model (ERIM). In order to investigate the applicability of mutual theoretical elements of both models to special education in the USA, a sample of 100 special education paraeducators in public and…
Descriptors: Special Education, Paraprofessional School Personnel, Work Environment, Anxiety