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Kim, Eun Mi; Oláh, Leslie Nabors; Peters, Stephanie – ETS Research Report Series, 2020
K-12 students are expected to acquire competence in data display as part of developing statistical literacy. To support research, assessment design, and instruction, we developed a hypothesized learning progression (LP) using existing empirical literature in the fields of mathematics and statistics education. The data display LP posits a…
Descriptors: Mathematics Education, Statistics Education, Teaching Methods, Data Analysis
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Fife, James H.; James, Kofi; Peters, Stephanie – ETS Research Report Series, 2020
The concept of variability is central to statistics. In this research report, we review mathematics education research on variability and, based on that review and on feedback from an expert panel, propose a learning progression (LP) for variability. The structure of the proposed LP consists of 5 levels of sophistication in understanding…
Descriptors: Mathematics Education, Statistics Education, Feedback (Response), Research Reports
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Haberman, Shelby J. – ETS Research Report Series, 2020
Best linear prediction (BLP) and penalized best linear prediction (PBLP) are techniques for combining sources of information to produce task scores, section scores, and composite test scores. The report examines issues to consider in operational implementation of BLP and PBLP in testing programs administered by ETS [Educational Testing Service].
Descriptors: Prediction, Scores, Tests, Testing Programs
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Deane, Paul – ETS Research Report Series, 2020
A key instructional goal of English language arts instruction is teaching students to read and interpret complex literary texts. This report reviews the literature on the development and pedagogy of literary analysis skills. It analyzes literary analysis skills as a "key practice," a bundle of disciplinary skills and strategies that form…
Descriptors: Reading Instruction, Language Arts, Reading Comprehension, Literary Criticism
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Zhou, Jiawen; Cao, Yi – ETS Research Report Series, 2020
In this study, we explored retest effects on test scores and response time for repeaters, examinees who retake an examination. We looked at two groups of repeaters: those who took the same form twice and those who took different forms on their two attempts for a certification and licensure test. Scores improved over the two test attempts, and…
Descriptors: Testing, Test Items, Computer Assisted Testing, Licensing Examinations (Professions)
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Attali, Yigal – ETS Research Report Series, 2020
Principles of skill acquisition dictate that raters should be provided with frequent feedback about their ratings. However, in current operational practice, raters rarely receive immediate feedback about their scores owing to the prohibitive effort required to generate such feedback. An approach for generating and administering feedback responses…
Descriptors: Feedback (Response), Evaluators, Accuracy, Scores
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Rotou, Ourania; Rupp, André A. – ETS Research Report Series, 2020
This research report provides a description of the processes of evaluating the "deployability" of automated scoring (AS) systems from the perspective of large-scale educational assessments in operational settings. It discusses a comprehensive psychometric evaluation that entails analyses that take into consideration the specific purpose…
Descriptors: Computer Assisted Testing, Scoring, Educational Assessment, Psychometrics
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Lopez, Alexis A.; Tolentino, Florencia – ETS Research Report Series, 2020
In this study we investigated how English learners (ELs) interacted with "®" summative English language arts (ELA) and mathematics items, the embedded online tools, and accessibility features. We focused on how EL students navigated the assessment items; how they selected or constructed their responses; how they interacted with the…
Descriptors: English Language Learners, Student Evaluation, Language Arts, Summative Evaluation
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Yao, Lili; Haberman, Shelby; McCaffrey, Daniel F.; Lockwood, J. R. – ETS Research Report Series, 2020
Minimum discriminant information adjustment (MDIA), an approach to weighting samples to conform to known population information, provides a generalization of raking and poststratification. In the case of simple random sampling with replacement with uniform sampling weights, large-sample properties are available for MDIA estimates of population…
Descriptors: Discriminant Analysis, Sampling, Sample Size, Scores
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Kevelson, Marisol J. C.; Marconi, Gabriele; Millett, Catherine M.; Zhelyazkova, Nevena – ETS Research Report Series, 2020
In this study, we investigated factors predictive of disconnection, or not being in education, employment, or training (NEET), among young adults with at least a 2-year college degree. We also explored the extent to which disconnection influences civic participation and well-being among NEETs with and without college degrees. The authors used 2012…
Descriptors: Education Work Relationship, Learner Engagement, Unemployment, Young Adults
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Hanson, Stephen José; Saunders, Stephanie; Aponte, Arcelio; Copeland, Robert; Nettles, Michael – ETS Research Report Series, 2020
The academic achievement gap is a persistent and pernicious educational challenge confounded with race and socioeconomic status. The achievement gap persists despite over three decades of interventions and federal, state, and local policies and initiatives meant to close it. We examine the achievement gap in one of the most diverse states in the…
Descriptors: Achievement Gap, Racial Differences, Ethnicity, Socioeconomic Status
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Miller, Catherine, Ed. – ETS Research Report Series, 2020
The college promise movement is aimed toward making the attendance and completion of college affordable for eligible Americans in hundreds of local communities and states throughout the United States. Many college promise programs are designed with the intent of enabling students to start and complete college degree and/or postsecondary…
Descriptors: Student Costs, College Students, Educational Finance, Student Diversity
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Cao, Yi; Chen, Jianshen; Zhang, Mo; Li, Chen – ETS Research Report Series, 2020
Scenario-based writing assessment has two salient characteristics by design: a lead-in/essay scaffolding structure and a unified scenario/topic throughout. In this study, we examine whether the scenario-based assessment design would impact students' essay scores compared to its alternative conditions, which intentionally broke the scaffolding…
Descriptors: Writing Processes, Vignettes, Writing Evaluation, Regression (Statistics)
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Goe, Laura; Alkaabi, Alanood Khalifa; Tannenbaum, Richard J. – ETS Research Report Series, 2020
In this study, we provide insights into the experiences of teachers in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) in order to identify concerns and develop strategies to support teachers' development and retention in the profession. Researchers interviewed 94 teachers from public and private schools across the UAE in four focus groups. Interviews focused on…
Descriptors: Foreign Countries, Teacher Attitudes, Public Schools, Private Schools
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Rikoon, Samuel – ETS Research Report Series, 2020
Hispanic-serving institutions (HSIs) face a multifaceted set of challenges in determining how to maintain their effectiveness in building student competencies and encouraging their academic success. To understand the importance of noncognitive skills on fostering such success, this study reports on efforts at three HSIs to make meaningful use of…
Descriptors: Minority Serving Institutions, Hispanic American Students, Barriers, Skill Development
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