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Deane, Paul; O'Reilly, Tenaha; Chao, Szu-Fu; Dreier, Kelsey – ETS Research Report Series, 2018
The purpose of the report is to explore some of the mechanisms involved in the writing process. In particular, we examine students' process data (keystroke log analysis) to uncover how students approach a knowledge-telling task using 2 different task types. In the first task, students were asked to list as many words as possible related to a…
Descriptors: Writing Processes, Responses, Prior Learning, Task Analysis
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Kim, Sooyeon; Moses, Tim – ETS Research Report Series, 2018
The purpose of this study is to assess the impact of aberrant responses on the estimation accuracy in forced-choice format assessments. To that end, a wide range of aberrant response behaviors (e.g., fake, random, or mechanical responses) affecting upward of 20%--30% of the responses was manipulated under the multi-unidimensional pairwise…
Descriptors: Measurement Techniques, Response Style (Tests), Accuracy, Computation
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Guo, Hongwen; Zu, Jiyun; Kyllonen, Patrick – ETS Research Report Series, 2018
For a multiple-choice test under development or redesign, it is important to choose the optimal number of options per item so that the test possesses the desired psychometric properties. On the basis of available data for a multiple-choice assessment with 8 options, we evaluated the effects of changing the number of options on test properties…
Descriptors: Multiple Choice Tests, Test Items, Simulation, Test Construction
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Kim, Sooyeon; Lu, Ru – ETS Research Report Series, 2018
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of linking test scores by using test takers' background data to form pseudo-equivalent groups (PEG) of test takers. Using 4 operational test forms that each included 100 items and were taken by more than 30,000 test takers, we created 2 half-length research forms that had either 20…
Descriptors: Test Items, Item Banks, Difficulty Level, Comparative Analysis
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van Rijn, Peter; Graf, Edith Aurora; Arieli-Attali, Meirav; Song, Yi – ETS Research Report Series, 2018
In this study, we explored the extent to which teachers agree on the ordering and separation of levels of two different learning progressions (LPs) in English language arts (ELA) and mathematics. In a panel meeting akin to a standard-setting procedure, we asked teachers to link the items and responses of summative educational assessments to LP…
Descriptors: Teacher Attitudes, Student Evaluation, Summative Evaluation, Language Arts
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Roohr, Katrina Crotts; Burkander, Kri; Mao, Liyang – ETS Research Report Series, 2018
Oral communication has been identified as an important skill by higher education institutions and by the workforce community. Despite its importance, minimal research has been conducted around the development of tasks to measure oral communication skills and behaviors. The purpose of this preliminary study is to evaluate the different factors…
Descriptors: Speech Communication, Video Technology, Test Construction, Scoring
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Oliveri, María Elena; Rutkowski, David; Rutkowski, Lesli – ETS Research Report Series, 2018
Fifty years after the first international large-scale assessment (ILSA), participation in these studies continues to grow, with more than 50% of the world's countries participating. Concomitant with growth in ILSAs is an expansion in the diversity of participant countries with respect to languages, cultures, and educational perspectives and goals.…
Descriptors: International Assessment, Test Validity, Test Use, Alignment (Education)
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Fu, Jianbin; Feng, Yuling – ETS Research Report Series, 2018
In this study, we propose aggregating test scores with unidimensional within-test structure and multidimensional across-test structure based on a 2-level, 1-factor model. In particular, we compare 6 score aggregation methods: average of standardized test raw scores (M1), regression factor score estimate of the 1-factor model based on the…
Descriptors: Comparative Analysis, Scores, Correlation, Standardized Tests
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Kell, Harrison J.; Robbins, Steven B.; Su, Rong; Brenneman, Meghan – ETS Research Report Series, 2018
The concept of human capital originated in economics over 200 years ago. The current paper takes a novel approach to human capital by interpreting it from a psychological perspective. We divide human capital into 2 domains: traditional and nontraditional. The traditional domain consists of the constructs that have been historically classified as…
Descriptors: Human Capital, Cognitive Ability, Personality Traits, Vocational Interests
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Qi, Yi; Bell, Courtney A.; Jones, Nathan D.; Lewis, Jennifer M.; Witherspoon, Margaret W.; Redash, Amanda – ETS Research Report Series, 2018
Teacher observations are being used for high-stakes purposes in states across the country, and administrators often serve as raters in teacher evaluation systems. This paper examines how the cognitive aspects of administrators' use of an observation instrument, a modified version of Charlotte Danielson's Framework for Teaching, interact with the…
Descriptors: Teacher Evaluation, Classroom Observation Techniques, Observation, Evaluation Methods
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Klieger, David M.; Kell, Harrison J.; Rikoon, Samuel; Burkander, Kri N.; Bochenek, Jennifer L.; Shore, Jane R. – ETS Research Report Series, 2018
In this research, we developed behaviorally anchored rating scales (BARS) to evaluate the job performance of Zone Three jobs requiring middle-level skills and prior education ranging from vocational training to an associate's degree as well as work-related skills or experience. We ultimately identified 7 relevant job performance dimensions mainly…
Descriptors: Test Construction, Behavior Rating Scales, Job Performance, Job Skills
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Dorans, Neil J. – ETS Research Report Series, 2018
A distinction is made between scores as measures of a construct and predictions of a criterion or outcome variable. The interpretation attached to predictions of criteria, such as job performance or college grade point average (GPA), differs from that attached to scores that are measures of a construct, such as reading proficiency or knowledge…
Descriptors: Job Performance, Scores, Data Interpretation, Statistical Distributions
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Graf, Edith Aurora; Fife, James H.; Howell, Heather; Marquez, Elizabeth – ETS Research Report Series, 2018
In this report, we discuss background research on the development of student understanding of quadratic functions and present a provisional learning progression for quadratic functions and quadratic equations. We also describe task shells that are linked to the learning progression. The learning progression and task shells can be used as a…
Descriptors: Learning Processes, Mathematical Concepts, Equations (Mathematics), Mathematics Instruction
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Madnani, Nitin; Cahill, Aoife; Blanchard, Daniel; Andreyev, Slava; Napolitano, Diane; Gyawali, Binod; Heilman, Michael; Lee, Chong Min; Leong, Chee Wee; Mulholland, Matthew; Riordan, Brian – ETS Research Report Series, 2018
We present a microservice architecture for large-scale automated scoring applications. Our architecture builds on the open-source Apache Storm framework and facilitates the development of robust, scalable automated scoring applications that can easily be extended and customized. We demonstrate our architecture with an application for automated…
Descriptors: Automation, Scoring, Computer System Design, Open Source Technology
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Lu, Ru; Guo, Hongwen – ETS Research Report Series, 2018
In this paper we compare the newly developed pseudo-equivalent groups (PEG) linking method with the linking methods based on the traditional nonequivalent groups with anchor test (NEAT) design and illustrate how to use the PEG methods under imperfect equating conditions. To do this, we proposed a new method that combines the features of PEG…
Descriptors: Equated Scores, Comparative Analysis, Test Items, Background
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