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Michael E. Walker; Margarita Olivera-Aguilar; Blair Lehman; Cara Laitusis; Danielle Guzman-Orth; Melissa Gholson – ETS Research Report Series, 2023
Recent criticisms of large-scale summative assessments have claimed that the assessments are biased against historically excluded groups because of the assessments' lack of cultural representation. Accompanying these criticisms is a call for more culturally responsive assessments--assessments that take into account the background characteristics…
Descriptors: Culturally Relevant Education, Measurement, Summative Evaluation, Student Evaluation
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Michael Kane – ETS Research Report Series, 2023
Linear functional relationships are intended to be symmetric and therefore cannot generally be accurately estimated using ordinary least squares regression equations. Orthogonal regression (OR) models allow for errors in both "Y" and "X" and therefore can provide symmetric estimates of these relationships. The most…
Descriptors: Factor Analysis, Regression (Statistics), Mathematical Models, Relationship
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Teresa M. Ober; Blair A. Lehman; Reginald Gooch; Olasumbo Oluwalana; Jaemarie Solyst; Geoffrey Phelps; Laura S. Hamilton – ETS Research Report Series, 2023
Culturally responsive personalized learning (CRPL) emphasizes the importance of aligning personalized learning approaches with previous research on culturally responsive practices to consider social, cultural, and linguistic contexts for learning. In the present discussion, we briefly summarize two bodies of literature considered in defining and…
Descriptors: Culturally Relevant Education, Individualized Instruction, Definitions, Educational Principles
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Kevin M. Williams; Tao Wang; Steven Holtzman; Tak Ming Leung; Gernissia Cherfrere; Guangming Ling – ETS Research Report Series, 2023
Individuals with a high school education represent the largest subset of the U.S. workforce. However, little is known about the employer expectations of these individuals, particularly in the area of soft skills--also known as 21st-century skills. Online job advertisements offer useful data for examining these expectations, as they may supplement…
Descriptors: High School Graduates, 21st Century Skills, Employer Attitudes, Employment
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Marisol J. C. Kevelson; Catherine M. Millett; Carly Slutzky; Stephanie R. Saunders – ETS Research Report Series, 2023
This study explores the extent to which student, family, peer, and school factors predict (a) whether students take "Advanced Placement®" ("AP®") courses, International Baccalaureate (IB) courses, and dual enrollment courses and (b) in models limited to course takers, how many courses they completed. Our findings, based on a…
Descriptors: Equal Education, Dual Enrollment, College Preparation, High School Students
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Jing Miao; Sandip Sinharay; Chris Kelbaugh; Yi Cao; Wei Wang – ETS Research Report Series, 2023
In a targeted double-scoring procedure for performance assessments that are used for licensure and certification purposes, a subset of responses receives an independent second rating if the first rating falls into a preidentified critical score range (CSR) where an additional rating would lead to considerably more reliable pass-fail decisions.…
Descriptors: Scoring, Performance Based Assessment, Licensing Examinations (Professions), Certification
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Yanxuan Qu; Sandip Sinharay – ETS Research Report Series, 2023
Though a substantial amount of research exists on imputing missing scores in educational assessments, there is little research on cases where responses or scores to an item are missing for all test takers. In this paper, we tackled the problem of imputing missing scores for tests for which the responses to an item are missing for all test takers.…
Descriptors: Scores, Test Items, Accuracy, Psychometrics
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John M. Norris; Shoko Sasayama; Michelle Kim – ETS Research Report Series, 2023
Accomplishing a communication task in the real world requires the ability not only to do the task per se but also to manage aspects of the context in which it occurs. For this reason, simulations of target language use contexts have been incorporated into the design of communicative language tests as a way of enhancing the authenticity of…
Descriptors: Electronic Mail, Writing (Composition), Task Analysis, Student Evaluation
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Geoffrey Phelps; Devon Kinsey; Thomas Florek; Nathan Jones – ETS Research Report Series, 2023
This report presents results from a survey of 64 elementary mathematics and reading language arts teacher educators providing feedback on a new type of short performance task. The performance tasks each present a brief teaching scenario and then require a short performance as if teaching actual students. Teacher educators participating in the…
Descriptors: Performance Based Assessment, Feedback (Response), Formative Evaluation, Teacher Educators
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Ching-Ni Hsieh – ETS Research Report Series, 2023
Research in validity suggests that stakeholders' interpretation and use of test results should be an aspect of validity. Claims about the meaningfulness of test score interpretations and consequences of test use should be backed by evidence that stakeholders understand the definition of the construct assessed and the score report information. The…
Descriptors: Foreign Countries, Language Proficiency, English (Second Language), Language Tests
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Ching-Ni Hsieh – ETS Research Report Series, 2023
Researchers suggest that claims about the meaningfulness of test score interpretations and consequences of test use should be backed by evidence that stakeholders understand the definition of the construct assessed (meaningfulness) and score reports (consequences). Evaluation of stakeholders' actual uses and interpretations of score reports in…
Descriptors: Reading Tests, Listening Comprehension, Foreign Countries, English (Second Language)
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Guo, Hongwen; Lu, Ru; Johnson, Matthew S.; McCaffrey, Dan F. – ETS Research Report Series, 2022
It is desirable for an educational assessment to be constructed of items that can differentiate different performance levels of test takers, and thus it is important to estimate accurately the item discrimination parameters in either classical test theory or item response theory. It is particularly challenging to do so when the sample sizes are…
Descriptors: Test Items, Item Response Theory, Item Analysis, Educational Assessment
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McCaffrey, Daniel F.; Casabianca, Jodi M.; Ricker-Pedley, Kathryn L.; Lawless, René R.; Wendler, Cathy – ETS Research Report Series, 2022
This document describes a set of best practices for developing, implementing, and maintaining the critical process of scoring constructed-response tasks. These practices address both the use of human raters and automated scoring systems as part of the scoring process and cover the scoring of written, spoken, performance, or multimodal responses.…
Descriptors: Best Practices, Scoring, Test Format, Computer Assisted Testing
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Olivera-Aguilar, Margarita; Lee, Hee-Sun; Pallant, Amy; Belur, Vinetha; Mulholland, Matthew; Liu, Ou Lydia – ETS Research Report Series, 2022
This study uses a computerized formative assessment system that provides automated scoring and feedback to help students write scientific arguments in a climate change curriculum. We compared the effect of contextualized versus generic automated feedback on students' explanations of scientific claims and attributions of uncertainty to those…
Descriptors: Computer Assisted Testing, Formative Evaluation, Automation, Scoring
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Lee, Shinhye – ETS Research Report Series, 2022
In response to the calls for making key stakeholders' perspectives relevant in the test validation process, the study discussed in this report sought test-taker feedback as part of collecting validity evidence and supporting the ongoing field testing efforts of the new "TOEFL ITP"® Speaking section. Specifically, I aimed to investigate…
Descriptors: English (Second Language), Second Language Learning, Language Tests, Test Validity
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