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Stone, Elizabeth; Wylie, E. Caroline – ETS Research Report Series, 2019
We describe the summative assessment component within a K-12 assessment program and our development of a validity argument to support its claims with respect to intended uses and interpretations. First, we describe the "Winsight"® assessment program theory of action, a logic model elucidating mechanisms for how use of the assessment…
Descriptors: Summative Evaluation, Educational Assessment, Test Validity, Test Use
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Ackerman, Debra J. – ETS Research Report Series, 2019
The Day 1 Academies Fund aims to support a network of high-quality, full-scholarship, Montessori-inspired preschools in underserved communities. To provide insight into the fund's pedagogical inspiration, in this report I provide a high-level overview of the Montessori preschool landscape in the United States. This overview includes 5 key…
Descriptors: Montessori Schools, Montessori Method, Preschool Education, Low Income Students
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Kell, Harrison J. – ETS Research Report Series, 2019
Interest in the relationship between teachers' personality traits and their performance is rising. It is often remarked, however, that the topic has received little research attention. This study surveys what empirical research has been conducted among U.S. K-12 teachers from 1990 to 2018.The search, conducted according to Preferred Reporting…
Descriptors: Teacher Characteristics, Personality Traits, Predictor Variables, Teacher Effectiveness
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Papageorgiou, Spiros; Wu, Sha; Hsieh, Ching-Ni; Tannenbaum, Richard J.; Cheng, Mengmeng – ETS Research Report Series, 2019
The past decade has seen an emerging interest in mapping (aligning or linking) test scores to language proficiency levels of external performance scales or frameworks, such as the Common European Framework of Reference (CEFR), as well as locally developed frameworks, such as China's Standards of English Language Ability (CSE). Such alignment is…
Descriptors: English (Second Language), Language Tests, Second Language Learning, Computer Assisted Testing
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Fu, Jianbin – ETS Research Report Series, 2019
A maximum marginal likelihood estimation with an expectation-maximization algorithm has been developed for estimating multigroup or mixture multidimensional item response theory models using the generalized partial credit function, graded response function, and 3-parameter logistic function. The procedure includes the estimation of item…
Descriptors: Maximum Likelihood Statistics, Mathematics, Item Response Theory, Expectation
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Swiggett, Wanda D. – ETS Research Report Series, 2019
We conducted a distance-based alignment study for the Performance Assessment for School Leaders (PASL). PASL is a multiple-task portfolio assessment that requires candidates to submit contextual information, written responses, and artifacts (e.g., student work) to provide evidence of the completion of the task requirements. This alignment study…
Descriptors: Standards, Alignment (Education), Portfolio Assessment, Administrator Education
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Fife, James H.; James, Kofi; Bauer, Malcolm – ETS Research Report Series, 2019
In this paper, a learning progression for geometric transformations is developed based on research that demonstrates the importance of viewing transformations as functions of the plane. The 5 levels of the progression reflect a student's evolving understanding of transformations as functions and their evolving understanding of the domain of these…
Descriptors: Mathematics Instruction, Common Core State Standards, Geometric Concepts, Learning Processes
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Gu, Lixiong; Ling, Guangming; Qu, Yanxuan – ETS Research Report Series, 2019
Research has found that the "a"-stratified item selection strategy (STR) for computerized adaptive tests (CATs) may lead to insufficient use of high a items at later stages of the tests and thus to reduced measurement precision. A refined approach, unequal item selection across strata (USTR), effectively improves test precision over the…
Descriptors: Computer Assisted Testing, Adaptive Testing, Test Use, Test Items
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Zhu, Mengxiao; Zhang, Mo; Deane, Paul – ETS Research Report Series, 2019
The research on using event logs and item response time to study test-taking processes is rapidly growing in the field of educational measurement. In this study, we analyzed the keystroke logs collected from 761 middle school students in the United States as they completed a persuasive writing task. Seven variables were extracted from the…
Descriptors: Keyboarding (Data Entry), Data Collection, Data Analysis, Writing Processes
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Guo, Hongwen; Dorans, Neil J. – ETS Research Report Series, 2019
The Mantel-Haenszel delta difference (MH D-DIF) and the standardized proportion difference (STD P-DIF) are two observed-score methods that have been used to assess differential item functioning (DIF) at Educational Testing Service since the early 1990s. Latentvariable approaches to assessing measurement invariance at the item level have been…
Descriptors: Test Bias, Educational Testing, Statistical Analysis, Item Response Theory
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Qian, Jiahe; Gu, Lixiong; Li, Shuhong – ETS Research Report Series, 2019
In assembling testlets (i.e., test forms) with a pool of new and used item blocks, test security is one of the main issues of concern. Strict constraints are often imposed on repeated usage of the same item blocks. Nevertheless, for an assessment administering multiple testlets, a goal is to select as large a sample of testlets as possible. In…
Descriptors: Test Construction, Sampling, Test Items, Mathematics
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Graf, Edith Aurora; Peters, Stephanie; Fife, James H.; van Rijn, Peter W.; Arieli-Attali, Meirav; Marquez, Elizabeth – ETS Research Report Series, 2019
Learning progressions (LPs) describe the development of domain-specific knowledge, skills, and understanding. Each level of an LP characterizes a phase of student thinking en route to a target performance. The rationale behind LP development is to provide road maps that can be used to guide student thinking from one level to the next. The validity…
Descriptors: Mathematical Concepts, Learning Processes, Sequential Approach, Student Development
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Feng, Gary; Joe, Jilliam; Kitchen, Christopher; Mao, Liyang; Roohr, Katrina Crotts; Chen, Lei – ETS Research Report Series, 2019
This proof-of-concept study examined the feasibility of a new scoring procedure designed to reduce the time of scoring a video-based public speaking assessment task. Instead of scoring the video in its entirety, the performance was evaluated based on content-related (e.g., speech organization, word choice) and delivery-related (e.g., vocal…
Descriptors: Scoring, Public Speaking, Video Technology, Evaluation Methods
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Rupp, André A.; Casabianca, Jodi M.; Krüger, Maleika; Keller, Stefan; Köller, Olaf – ETS Research Report Series, 2019
In this research report, we describe the design and empirical findings for a large-scale study of essay writing ability with approximately 2,500 high school students in Germany and Switzerland on the basis of 2 tasks with 2 associated prompts, each from a standardized writing assessment whose scoring involved both human and automated components.…
Descriptors: Automation, Foreign Countries, English (Second Language), Language Tests
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Haberman, Shelby J. – ETS Research Report Series, 2019
Cross-validation is a common statistical procedure applied to problems that are otherwise computationally intractable. It is often employed to assess the effectiveness of prediction procedures. In this report, cross-validation is discussed in terms of "U"-statistics. This approach permits consideration of the statistical properties of…
Descriptors: Statistical Analysis, Generalization, Prediction, Computation
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