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Murai, Chizuko; Kosugi, Daisuke; Tomonaga, Masaki; Tanaka, Masayuki; Matsuzawa, Tetsuro; Itakura, Shoji – Developmental Science, 2005
We directly compared chimpanzee infants and human infants for categorical representations of three global-like categories (mammals, furniture and vehicles), using the familiarization-novelty preference technique. Neither species received any training during the experiments. We used the time that participants spent looking at the stimulus object…
Descriptors: Animals, Novelty (Stimulus Dimension), Infants, Classification
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Richards, John E. – Developmental Science, 2005
This study used cortical source analysis to locate potential cortical sources of event-related potentials (ERPs) during covert orienting in infants aged 14 and 20 weeks. The infants were tested in a spatial cueing procedure. The reaction time to localize the target showed response facilitation for valid trials relative to invalid or neutral…
Descriptors: Reaction Time, Validity, Infants, Brain
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Lukowski, Angela F.; Wiebe, Sandra A.; Haight, Jennifer C.; DeBoer, Tracy; Nelson, Charles A.; Bauer, Patricia J. – Developmental Science, 2005
Although 9-month-old infants are capable of retaining temporally ordered information over long delays, this ability is relatively fragile. It may be possible to facilitate long-term retention by allowing infants to imitate event sequences immediately after their presentation. The effects of imitation on immediate and delayed recognition and on…
Descriptors: Stimuli, Imitation, Infants, Mnemonics
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Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Petrill, Stephen A.; Thompson, Lee A.; DeThorne, Laura S. – Developmental Science, 2005
Task persistence, measured by a composite score of independent teacher, tester and observer reports, was examined using behavioral genetic analysis. Participants included 92 monozygotic and 137 same-sex dizygotic twin pairs in Kindergarten or 1st grade (4.3 to 7.9 years old). Task persistence was widely distributed, higher among older children,…
Descriptors: Twins, Persistence, Standardized Tests, Genetics
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Riggs, Kevin J.; Simpson, Andrew – Developmental Science, 2005
Using the format of a false belief task (Wimmer & Perner, 1983), we investigated the ability of 88 3- and 4-year-olds to ascribe a previously held true belief to a story protagonist. In an unexpected transfer task, children found true belief ascription as difficult as false belief ascription even though they could answer memory questions about…
Descriptors: Cognitive Development, Young Children, Beliefs, Child Development
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Johnson, Kathy E.; Younger, Barbara A.; Furrer, Stephanie D. – Developmental Science, 2005
While very young children's understanding of objects as symbols for other entities has been the focus of much investigation, very little is known concerning the emergence of comprehension for symbolic relations among actions modeled with toy replicas and their real counterparts. We used videotaped depictions of real actions in a preferential…
Descriptors: Toys, Concept Formation, Infants, Object Permanence
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Livingston, Kenneth R.; Andrews, Janet K. – Developmental Science, 2005
After learning to categorize a set of alien-like stimuli in the context of a story, a group of 5-year-old children and adults judged pairs of stimuli from different categories to be less similar than did groups not learning the category distinction. In a same-different task, the learning group made more errors on pairs of non-identical stimuli…
Descriptors: Stimuli, Young Children, Adults, Concept Formation
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Pierroutsakos, Sophia L.; DeLoache, Judy S.; Gound, Mary; Bernard, E. Nicole – Developmental Science, 2005
In two experiments on very young children's response to the orientation of pictures and objects, 18-, 24- and 30-month-old children showed no preference for upright pictures over inverted ones. More importantly, we found that children in all three age groups were equally accurate and equally fast at identifying depicted objects regardless of…
Descriptors: Toddlers, Pictorial Stimuli, Task Analysis, Cognitive Processes
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Striano, Tricia; Stahl, Daniel – Developmental Science, 2005
In Study 1, 54 3-, 6- and 9-month-old infants interacted with an adult stranger who engaged in a face-to-face (dyadic) exchange. Dyadic interaction was halted when the adult turned away to look at an object. In a Joint Attention condition, the adult alternated visual attention between the infant and the object, and in a Look Away condition she…
Descriptors: Attention, Infants, Adults, Interaction
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Jarrold, Christopher; Gilchrist, Iain D.; Bender, Alison – Developmental Science, 2005
Individuals with autism show relatively strong performance on tasks that require them to identify the constituent parts of a visual stimulus. This is assumed to be the result of a bias towards processing the local elements in a display that follows from a weakened ability to integrate information at the global level. The results of the current…
Descriptors: Autism, Task Analysis, Performance, Visual Stimuli
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Simpson, Andrew; Riggs, Kevin J. – Developmental Science, 2005
In a recent study Diamond, Kirkham and Amso (2002) obtained evidence consistent with the claim that the day-night task requires inhibition because the picture and its corresponding conflicting response are semantically related. In their study children responded more accurately in a dog-pig condition (see /day picture/ say "dog"; see /night…
Descriptors: Semantics, Preschool Children, Task Analysis, Inhibition
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Coch, Donna; Skendzel, Wendy; Grossi, Giordana; Neville, Helen – Developmental Science, 2005
Stimuli designed to selectively elicit motion or color processing were used in a developmental event-related potential study with adults and children aged 6, 7 and 8. A positivity at posterior site INZ (P-INZ) was greater to motion stimuli only in adults. The P1 and N1 were larger to color stimuli in both adults and children, but earlier to motion…
Descriptors: Color, Motion, Visual Stimuli, Language Proficiency
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O'Neill, Maria; Bard, Kim A.; Linnell, Maggie; Fluck, Michael – Developmental Science, 2005
Speech directed towards young children ("motherese") is subject to consistent systematic modifications. Recent research suggests that gesture directed towards young children is similarly modified (gesturese). It has been suggested that gesturese supports speech, therefore scaffolding communicative development (the facilitative…
Descriptors: Play, Mothers, Semantics, Infants
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Schellenberg, E. Glenn; Bigand, Emmanuel; Poulin-Charronnat, Benedicte; Garnier, Cecilia; Stevens, Catherine – Developmental Science, 2005
Three experiments examined children's knowledge of harmony in Western music. The children heard a series of chords followed by a final, target chord. In Experiment 1, French 6- and 11-year-olds judged whether the target was sung with the vowel /i/ or /u/. In Experiment 2, Australian 8- and 11-year-olds judged whether the target was played on a…
Descriptors: Foreign Countries, Children, Music, Western Civilization
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Swingley, Daniel – Developmental Science, 2005
During the first year of life, infants' perception of speech becomes tuned to the phonology of the native language, as revealed in laboratory discrimination and categorization tasks using syllable stimuli. However, the implications of these results for the development of the early vocabulary remain controversial, with some results suggesting that…
Descriptors: Phonology, Infants, Language Acquisition, Vocabulary Development
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