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Piccolo, Luciane R.; Merz, Emily C.; Noble, Kimberly G. – Developmental Science, 2019
A positive school climate has been found to support mental and physical health, academic achievement and social adjustment among youth. However, links between school climate and brain structure have not been investigated to date. In this study, we investigated whether school climate was associated with executive function (EF) and brain structure…
Descriptors: Educational Environment, Correlation, Brain, Executive Function
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Brinchmann, Ellen Irén; Braeken, Johan; Lyster, Solveig-Alma Halaas – Developmental Science, 2019
Previous studies of individual differences have revealed strong correlations between children's vocabulary and grammatical abilities, and these data have been used to support theoretical accounts positing direct developmental relations between these two areas of language. However, between-person differences do not necessarily reflect…
Descriptors: Vocabulary, Grammar, Language Acquisition, Young Children
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Hahn, Michael; Joechner, Ann-Kathrin; Roell, Judith; Schabus, Manuel; Heib, Dominik P. J.; Gruber, Georg; Peigneux, Philippe; Hoedlmoser, Kerstin – Developmental Science, 2019
Sleep spindles are related to sleep-dependent memory consolidation and general cognitive abilities. However, they undergo drastic maturational changes during adolescence. Here we used a longitudinal approach (across 7 years) to explore whether developmental changes in sleep spindle density can explain individual differences in sleep-dependent…
Descriptors: Sleep, Child Development, Memory, Cognitive Ability
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Bergelson, Elika; Casillas, Marisa; Soderstrom, Melanie; Seidl, Amanda; Warlaumont, Anne S.; Amatuni, Andrei – Developmental Science, 2019
A range of demographic variables influences how much speech young children hear. However, because studies have used vastly different sampling methods, quantitative comparison of interlocking demographic effects has been nearly impossible, across or within studies. We harnessed a unique collection of existing naturalistic, day-long recordings from…
Descriptors: Infants, Toddlers, Speech Communication, Age Differences
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Yu, Chen; Suanda, Sumarga H.; Smith, Linda B. – Developmental Science, 2019
Vocabulary differences early in development are highly predictive of later language learning as well as achievement in school. Early word learning emerges in the context of tightly coupled social interactions between the early learner and a mature partner. In the present study, we develop and apply a novel paradigm--dual head-mounted eye…
Descriptors: Infants, Infant Behavior, Attention Control, Eye Movements
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Lourenco, Stella F.; Aulet, Lauren S. – Developmental Science, 2019
There is general agreement that humans represent numerical, spatial, and temporal magnitudes from early in development. However, there is disagreement about whether different magnitudes converge within a general magnitude system and whether this system supports behavioral demonstrations of cross-magnitude interactions at different developmental…
Descriptors: Developmental Stages, Infants, Preschool Children, Age Differences
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Fröhlich, Marlen; Wittig, Roman M.; Pika, Simone – Developmental Science, 2019
The onset of intentional communication in children's first year of life represents a major milestone in human cognitive development. Similarly, it is well established that our closest living relatives, the great apes, communicate with signals characterized by at least first-order intentionality. Despite the well-documented influence of…
Descriptors: Animals, Development, Communication Strategies, Infants
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Bakker, Merel; Torbeyns, Joke; Wijns, Nore; Verschaffel, Lieven; De Smedt, Bert – Developmental Science, 2019
Numerical competencies acquired in preschool are foundational and predictive for children's later mathematical development. It remains to be determined whether there are gender differences in these early numerical competencies which could explain the often-reported gender differences in later mathematics and STEM-related abilities. Using a…
Descriptors: Gender Differences, Preschool Children, Preschool Education, Numeracy
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Snowling, Margaret J.; Lervåg, Arne; Nash, Hannah M.; Hulme, Charles – Developmental Science, 2019
Speech perception deficits are commonly reported in dyslexia but longitudinal evidence that poor speech perception compromises learning to read is scant. We assessed the hypothesis that phonological skills, specifically phoneme awareness and RAN, mediate the relationship between speech perception and reading. We assessed longitudinal predictive…
Descriptors: Speech Communication, Dyslexia, Phonology, Phonemic Awareness
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Broadbent, Hannah J.; Osborne, Tamsin; Mareschal, Denis; Kirkham, Natasha Z. – Developmental Science, 2019
Multisensory tools are commonly employed within educational settings (e.g. Carter & Stephenson, 2012), and there is a growing body of literature advocating the benefits of presenting children with multisensory information over unisensory cues for learning (Baker & Jordan, 2015; Jordan & Baker, 2011). This is even the case when the…
Descriptors: Multisensory Learning, Teaching Methods, Cues, Retention (Psychology)
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Plebanek, Daniel J.; Sloutsky, Vladimir M. – Developmental Science, 2019
Selective attention is fundamental for learning across many situations, yet it exhibits protracted development, with young children often failing to filter out distractors. In this research, we examine links between selective attention and working memory (WM) capacity across development. One possibility is that WM is resource-limited, with…
Descriptors: Attention, Young Children, Short Term Memory, Child Development
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Murray, Aja Louise; Booth, Tom; Eisner, Manuel; Auyeung, Bonnie; Murray, George; Ribeaud, Denis – Developmental Science, 2019
Previous studies have hinted at sex differences in developmental trajectories in ADHD symptoms; however, little is known about the nature or cause of these differences and their implications for clinical practice. We used growth mixture modelling in a community-ascertained cohort of n = 1,571 participants to study sex differences in ADHD symptom…
Descriptors: Symptoms (Individual Disorders), Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Gender Differences, Conceptual Tempo
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Roemer, Emily J.; West, Kelsey L.; Northrup, Jessie B.; Iverson, Jana M. – Developmental Science, 2019
Children's gesture production precedes and predicts language development, but the pathways linking these domains are unclear. It is possible that gesture production assists in children's developing word comprehension, which in turn supports expressive vocabulary acquisition. The present study examines this mediation pathway in a population with…
Descriptors: Nonverbal Communication, Language Acquisition, Language Processing, Infants
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Emberson, Lauren L.; Misyak, Jennifer B.; Schwade, Jennifer A.; Christiansen, Morten H.; Goldstein, Michael H. – Developmental Science, 2019
Statistical learning (SL), sensitivity to probabilistic regularities in sensory input, has been widely implicated in cognitive and perceptual development. Little is known, however, about the underlying mechanisms of SL and whether they undergo developmental change. One way to approach these questions is to compare SL across perceptual modalities.…
Descriptors: Statistics, Learning Processes, Infants, Learning Modalities
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Kalashnikova, Marina; Goswami, Usha; Burnham, Denis – Developmental Science, 2019
Here we report, for the first time, a relationship between sensitivity to amplitude envelope rise time in infants and their later vocabulary development. Recent research in auditory neuroscience has revealed that amplitude envelope rise time plays a mechanistic role in speech encoding. Accordingly, individual differences in infant discrimination…
Descriptors: Infants, Auditory Perception, Vocabulary Development, Speech
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