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Zhao, Li; Heyman, Gail D.; Chen, Lulu; Lee, Kang – Developmental Science, 2018
The present research examined the consequences of telling young children they have a reputation for being smart. Of interest was how this would affect their willingness to resist the temptation to cheat for personal gain as assessed by a temptation resistance task, in which children promised not to cheat in the game. Two studies with 3- and…
Descriptors: Young Children, Reputation, Intelligence, Cheating
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Horváth, Klára; Hannon, Benjamin; Ujma, Peter P.; Gombos, Ferenc; Plunkett, Kim – Developmental Science, 2018
A broad range of studies demonstrate that sleep has a facilitating role in memory consolidation (see Rasch & Born, 2013). Whether sleep-dependent memory consolidation is also apparent in infants in their first few months of life has not been investigated. We demonstrate that 3-month-old infants only remember a cartoon face approximately…
Descriptors: Memory, Infants, Sleep, Habituation
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Perry, Lynn K.; Perlman, Marcus; Winter, Bodo; Massaro, Dominic W.; Lupyan, Gary – Developmental Science, 2018
Iconicity--the correspondence between form and meaning--may help young children learn to use new words. Early-learned words are higher in iconicity than later learned words. However, it remains unclear what role iconicity may play in actual language use. Here, we ask whether iconicity relates not just to the age at which words are acquired, but…
Descriptors: Speech Communication, English (Second Language), Second Language Learning, Vocabulary Development
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Hall, Matthew L.; Eigsti, Inge-Marie; Bortfeld, Heather; Lillo-Martin, Diane – Developmental Science, 2018
Developmental psychology plays a central role in shaping evidence-based best practices for prelingually deaf children. The Auditory Scaffolding Hypothesis (Conway et al., 2009) asserts that a lack of auditory stimulation in deaf children leads to impoverished implicit sequence learning abilities, measured via an artificial grammar learning (AGL)…
Descriptors: Sequential Learning, Deafness, Grammar, Task Analysis
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Wegener, Signy; Wang, Hua-Chen; Lissa, Peter; Robidoux, Serje; Nation, Kate; Castles, Anne – Developmental Science, 2018
There is an established association between children's oral vocabulary and their word reading but its basis is not well understood. Here, we present evidence from eye movements for a novel mechanism underlying this association. Two groups of 18 Grade 4 children received oral vocabulary training on one set of 16 novel words (e.g., 'nesh', 'coib'),…
Descriptors: Child Language, Oral Language, Vocabulary, Reading Skills
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Park, Joonkoo; van den Berg, Berry; Chiang, Crystal; Woldorff, Marty G.; Brannon, Elizabeth M. – Developmental Science, 2018
Adult neuroimaging studies have demonstrated dissociable neural activation patterns in the visual cortex in response to letters (Latin alphabet) and numbers (Arabic numerals), which suggest a strong experiential influence of reading and mathematics on the human visual system. Here, developmental trajectories in the event-related potential (ERP)…
Descriptors: Visual Perception, Neurological Organization, Brain Hemisphere Functions, Alphabets
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Bathelt, Joe; Gathercole, Susan E.; Johnson, Amy; Astle, Duncan E. – Developmental Science, 2018
Working memory (WM) skills are closely associated with learning progress in key areas such as reading and mathematics across childhood. As yet, however, little is known about how the brain systems underpinning WM develop over this critical developmental period. The current study investigated whether and how structural brain correlates of…
Descriptors: Brain, Morphology (Languages), Short Term Memory, Children
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Morey, Candice C.; Mareva, Silvana; Lelonkiewicz, Jaroslaw R.; Chevalier, Nicolas – Developmental Science, 2018
The emergence of strategic verbal rehearsal at around 7 years of age is widely considered a major milestone in descriptions of the development of short-term memory across childhood. Likewise, rehearsal is believed by many to be a crucial factor in explaining why memory improves with age. This apparent qualitative shift in mnemonic processes has…
Descriptors: Eye Movements, Mnemonics, Child Development, Qualitative Research
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Yu, Qijing; Daugherty, Ana M.; Anderson, Dana M.; Nishimura, Mayu; Brush, David; Hardwick, Amanda; Lacey, William; Raz, Sarah; Ofen, Noa – Developmental Science, 2018
An individual's socioeconomic status (SES) is often viewed as a proxy for a host of environmental influences. SES disparities have been linked to variance in brain structures particularly the hippocampus, a neural substrate of learning and memory. However, it is unclear whether the association between SES and hippocampal volume is similar in…
Descriptors: Children, Young Adults, Brain Hemisphere Functions, Socioeconomic Status
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Hussak, Larisa J.; Cimpian, Andrei – Developmental Science, 2018
We tested the hypothesis that political attitudes are influenced by an information-processing factor--namely, a bias in the content of everyday explanations. Because many societal phenomena are enormously complex, people's understanding of them often relies on heuristic shortcuts. For instance, when generating explanations for such phenomena…
Descriptors: Political Attitudes, Bias, Predictor Variables, Ideology
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Lany, Jill – Developmental Science, 2018
Children who rapidly recognize and interpret familiar words typically have accelerated lexical growth, providing indirect evidence that lexical processing efficiency (LPE) is related to word-learning ability. Here we directly tested whether children with better LPE are better able to learn novel words. In Experiment 1, 17- and 30-month-olds were…
Descriptors: Language Acquisition, Word Recognition, Age Differences, Language Processing
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Decety, Jean; Meidenbauer, Kimberly L.; Cowell, Jason M. – Developmental Science, 2018
This developmental neuroscience study examined the electrophysiological responses (EEG and ERPs) associated with perspective taking and empathic concern in preschool children, as well as their relation to parental empathy dispositions and children's own prosocial behavior. Consistent with a body of previous studies using stimuli depicting somatic…
Descriptors: Empathy, Preschool Children, Measurement Equipment, Child Development
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Pun, Anthea; Ferera, Matar; Diesendruck, Gil; Hamlin, J. Kiley; Baron, Andrew Scott – Developmental Science, 2018
Previous research has suggested that infants exhibit a preference for familiar over unfamiliar social groups (e.g., preferring individuals from their own language group over individuals from a foreign language group). However, because past studies often employ forced-choice procedures, it is not clear whether infants' intergroup preferences are…
Descriptors: Infants, Preferences, Familiarity, Social Bias
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Raviv, Limor; Arnon, Inbal – Developmental Science, 2018
Infants, children and adults are capable of extracting recurring patterns from their environment through statistical learning (SL), an implicit learning mechanism that is considered to have an important role in language acquisition. Research over the past 20 years has shown that SL is present from very early infancy and found in a variety of tasks…
Descriptors: Child Development, Age Differences, Learning Processes, Children
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Santillán, Jimena; Khurana, Atika – Developmental Science, 2018
Children from lower socioeconomic (SES) backgrounds tend to be at-risk for executive function (EF) impairments by the time they are in preschool, placing them at an early disadvantage for academic success. The present study examined the potentially protective role of bilingual experience on the development of inhibitory control (IC) in 1146 Head…
Descriptors: Child Development, Bilingualism, Spanish, Preschool Children
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