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Showing 1 to 15 of 198 results Save | Export
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Blair, Clancy; Kuzawa, Christopher W.; Willoughby, Michael T. – Developmental Science, 2020
A well-established literature demonstrates executive function (EF) deficits in obese children and adults relative to healthy weight comparisons. EF deficits in obesity are associated with overeating and impulsive consumption of high calorie foods leading to excess weight gain and to problems with metabolic regulation and low-grade inflammation…
Descriptors: Executive Function, Child Development, Body Composition, Obesity
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Yu, Yue; Kushnir, Tamar – Developmental Science, 2020
The success of human culture depends on early emerging mechanisms of social learning, which include the ability to acquire opaque cultural knowledge through faithful imitation, as well as the ability to advance culture through flexible discovery of new means to goal attainment. This study explores whether this mixture of faithful imitation and…
Descriptors: Socialization, Imitation, Goal Orientation, Parent Attitudes
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Hutchison, Jane E.; Ansari, Daniel; Zheng, Samuel; De Jesus, Stefanie; Lyons, Ian M. – Developmental Science, 2020
A long-standing debate in the field of numerical cognition concerns the degree to which symbolic and non-symbolic processing are related over the course of development. Of particular interest is the possibility that this link depends on the range of quantities in question. Behavioral and neuroimaging research with adults suggests that symbolic and…
Descriptors: Kindergarten, Numbers, Cognitive Processes, Young Children
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Kampa, Alyssa; Papafragou, Anna – Developmental Science, 2020
Human communication relies on the ability to take into account the speaker's mental state to infer the intended meaning of an utterance in context. For example, a sentence such as 'Some of the animals are safe to pet' can be interpreted as giving rise to the inference 'Some and not all animals are safe to pet' when uttered by an expert. The same…
Descriptors: Preschool Children, Interpersonal Communication, Pragmatics, Inferences
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Frankenhuis, Willem E.; de Vries, Sarah A.; Bianchi, JeanMarie; Ellis, Bruce J. – Developmental Science, 2020
Although growing up in stressful conditions can undermine mental abilities, people in harsh environments may develop intact, or even "enhanced," social and cognitive abilities for solving problems in high-adversity contexts (i.e. 'hidden talents'). We examine whether childhood and current exposure to violence are associated with memory…
Descriptors: Memory, Thinking Skills, Social Development, Cognitive Development
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Rennie, Joseph P.; Zhang, Mengya; Hawkins, Erin; Bathelt, Joe; Astle, Duncan E. – Developmental Science, 2020
We used two simple unsupervised machine learning techniques to identify differential trajectories of change in children who undergo intensive working memory (WM) training. We used self-organizing maps (SOMs)--a type of simple artificial neural network--to represent multivariate cognitive training data, and then tested whether the way tasks are…
Descriptors: Short Term Memory, Teaching Methods, Artificial Intelligence, Cognitive Development
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Uy, Jessica P.; Goldenberg, Diane; Tashjian, Sarah M.; Do, Kathy T.; Galván, Adriana – Developmental Science, 2019
Biologically embedded experiences alter developmental trajectories in ways that can influence health, learning, and/or behavior. These systematic differences in experiences may contribute to different biological outcomes as individuals grow and develop, including at the neural level. Previous studies of biologically embedded experiences on…
Descriptors: Physical Environment, Family Environment, Brain Hemisphere Functions, Cognitive Development
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Knauer, Heather A.; Kariger, Patricia; Jakiela, Pamela; Ozier, Owen; Fernald, Lia C. H. – Developmental Science, 2019
In many low- and middle-income countries, young children learn a mother tongue or indigenous language at home before entering the formal education system where they will need to understand and speak a country's official language(s). Thus, assessments of children before school age, conducted in a nation's official language, may not fully reflect a…
Descriptors: Multilingualism, African Languages, Rural Areas, English (Second Language)
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Lloyd-Fox, Sarah; Blasi, Anna; McCann, Samantha; Rozhko, Maria; Katus, Laura; Mason, Luke; Austin, Topun; Moore, Sophie E.; Elwell, Clare E. – Developmental Science, 2019
The first 1,000 days of life are a critical window of vulnerability to exposure to socioeconomic and health challenges (i.e. poverty/undernutrition). The Brain Imaging for Global Health (BRIGHT) project has been established to deliver longitudinal measures of brain development from 0 to 24 months in UK and Gambian infants and to assess the impact…
Descriptors: Habituation, Novelty (Stimulus Dimension), Infants, Socioeconomic Status
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Milosavljevic, Bosiljka; Vellekoop, Perijne; Maris, Helen; Halliday, Drew; Drammeh, Saikou; Sanyang, Lamin; Darboe, Momodou K.; Elwell, Clare; Moore, Sophie E.; Lloyd-Fox, Sarah – Developmental Science, 2019
Infants in low-resource settings are at heightened risk for compromised cognitive development due to a multitude of environmental insults in their surroundings. However, the onset of adverse outcomes and trajectory of cognitive development in these settings is not well understood. The aims of the present study were to adapt the Mullen Scales of…
Descriptors: Foreign Countries, Cognitive Ability, Young Children, Motor Development
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Ishihara, Toru; Sugasawa, Shigemi; Matsuda, Yusuke; Mizuno, Masao – Developmental Science, 2018
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between sports experience (i.e., tennis experience) and executive function in children while controlling for physical activity and physical fitness. Sixty-eight participants (6-12 years old, 34 males and 34 females) were enrolled in regular tennis lessons (mean = 2.4 years,…
Descriptors: Executive Function, Children, Physical Fitness, Athletics
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Park, Joonkoo; van den Berg, Berry; Chiang, Crystal; Woldorff, Marty G.; Brannon, Elizabeth M. – Developmental Science, 2018
Adult neuroimaging studies have demonstrated dissociable neural activation patterns in the visual cortex in response to letters (Latin alphabet) and numbers (Arabic numerals), which suggest a strong experiential influence of reading and mathematics on the human visual system. Here, developmental trajectories in the event-related potential (ERP)…
Descriptors: Visual Perception, Neurological Organization, Brain Hemisphere Functions, Alphabets
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Yu, Qijing; Daugherty, Ana M.; Anderson, Dana M.; Nishimura, Mayu; Brush, David; Hardwick, Amanda; Lacey, William; Raz, Sarah; Ofen, Noa – Developmental Science, 2018
An individual's socioeconomic status (SES) is often viewed as a proxy for a host of environmental influences. SES disparities have been linked to variance in brain structures particularly the hippocampus, a neural substrate of learning and memory. However, it is unclear whether the association between SES and hippocampal volume is similar in…
Descriptors: Children, Young Adults, Brain Hemisphere Functions, Socioeconomic Status
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Santillán, Jimena; Khurana, Atika – Developmental Science, 2018
Children from lower socioeconomic (SES) backgrounds tend to be at-risk for executive function (EF) impairments by the time they are in preschool, placing them at an early disadvantage for academic success. The present study examined the potentially protective role of bilingual experience on the development of inhibitory control (IC) in 1146 Head…
Descriptors: Child Development, Bilingualism, Spanish, Preschool Children
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Twomey, Katherine E.; Westermann, Gert – Developmental Science, 2018
Infants are curious learners who drive their own cognitive development by imposing structure on their learning environment as they explore. Understanding the mechanisms by which infants structure their own learning is therefore critical to our understanding of development. Here we propose an explicit mechanism for intrinsically motivated…
Descriptors: Infants, Infant Behavior, Child Development, Learning Processes
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