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Machlin, Laura; McLaughlin, Katie A.; Sheridan, Margaret A. – Developmental Science, 2020
Low socioeconomic status (SES) is associated with greater risk for symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). One mechanism through which SES may confer risk for ADHD is by influencing brain structure. Alterations to cortical thickness, surface area and subcortical volume have been associated with low SES and with the presence of…
Descriptors: Socioeconomic Status, Socioeconomic Influences, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Brain
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Vandermosten, Maaike; Correia, Joao; Vanderauwera, Jolijn; Wouters, Jan; Ghesquière, Pol; Bonte, Milene – Developmental Science, 2020
There is an ongoing debate whether phonological deficits in dyslexics should be attributed to (a) less specified representations of speech sounds, like suggested by studies in young children with a familial risk for dyslexia, or (b) to an impaired access to these phonemic representations, as suggested by studies in adults with dyslexia. These…
Descriptors: Brain Hemisphere Functions, Diagnostic Tests, Genetics, Dyslexia
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Kubota, Maki; Chevalier, Nicolas; Sorace, Antonella – Developmental Science, 2020
This longitudinal study investigates whether the development in executive control and bilingual experience predicts change in language control in bilingual children. Children were tested twice over the course of 1 year, using the language-switching paradigm and the Simon task. The participants were Japanese-English bilingual "returnee"…
Descriptors: Self Control, Executive Function, Bilingualism, Language Usage
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Gaither, Sarah E.; Fan, Samantha P.; Kinzler, Katherine D. – Developmental Science, 2020
Studies of children's developing social identification often focus on individual forms of identity. Yet, everyone has multiple potential identities. Here we investigated whether making children aware of their multifaceted identities--effectively seeing themselves from multiple angles--would promote their flexible thinking. In Experiment 1, 6- to…
Descriptors: Self Concept, Problem Solving, Children, Thinking Skills
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Tovar, Ángel Eugenio; Rodríguez-Granados, Angélica; Arias-Trejo, Natalia – Developmental Science, 2020
The shape bias, a preference for mapping new word labels onto the shape rather than the color or texture of referents, has been postulated as a word-learning mechanism. Previous research has shown deficits in the shape bias in children with autism even though they acquire sizeable lexicons. While previous explanations have suggested the atypical…
Descriptors: Autism, Pervasive Developmental Disorders, Color, Novelty (Stimulus Dimension)
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Schonberg, Christina C.; Russell, Emily E.; Luna, Michelle L. – Developmental Science, 2020
English-monolingual children develop a shape bias early in language acquisition, such that they more often generalize a novel label based on shape than other features. Spanish-monolingual children, however, do not show this bias to the same extent (Hahn & Cantrell, 2012). Studying children who are simultaneously learning both Spanish and…
Descriptors: Bilingualism, Bias, Spanish, English
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Fletcher, Fay E.; Knowland, Victoria; Walker, Sarah; Gaskell, M. Gareth; Norbury, Courtenay; Henderson, Lisa M. – Developmental Science, 2020
Sleep is known to support the neocortical consolidation of declarative memory, including the acquisition of new language. Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is often characterized by both sleep and language learning difficulties, but few studies have explored a potential connection between the two. Here, 54 children with and without ASD (matched on…
Descriptors: Autism, Pervasive Developmental Disorders, Sleep, Neurological Impairments
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Ackermann, Lena; Hepach, Robert; Mani, Nivedita – Developmental Science, 2020
The overall pattern of vocabulary development is relatively similar across children learning different languages. However, there are considerable differences in the words known to individual children. Historically, this variability has been explained in terms of differences in the input. Here, we examine the alternate possibility that children's…
Descriptors: Children, Vocabulary Development, Learner Engagement, Childhood Interests
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Delalande, Lisa; Moyon, Marine; Tissier, Cloélia; Dorriere, Valérie; Guillois, Bernard; Mevell, Katel; Charron, Sylvain; Salvia, Emilie; Poirel, Nicolas; Vidal, Julie; Lion, Stéphanie; Oppenheim, Catherine; Houdé, Olivier; Cachia, Arnaud; Borst, Grégoire – Developmental Science, 2020
A number of training interventions have been designed to improve executive functions and inhibitory control (IC) across the lifespan. Surprisingly, no study has investigated the structural neuroplasticity induced by IC training from childhood to late adolescence, a developmental period characterized by IC efficiency improvement and protracted…
Descriptors: Intervention, Brain Hemisphere Functions, Executive Function, Inhibition
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Gilligan, Katie A.; Thomas, Michael S. C.; Farran, Emily K. – Developmental Science, 2020
There is evidence that spatial thinking is malleable, and that spatial and mathematical skills are associated (Mix et al. [2016] "Journal of Experimental Psychology: General," 145, 1206; Mix et al. [2017] "Journal of Cognition and Development," 18, 465; Uttal et al. [2013] "Psychological Bulletin," 139, 352). However,…
Descriptors: Spatial Ability, Mathematics Skills, Children, Transfer of Training
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Jones, Jonathan S.; Milton, Fraser; Mostazir, Mohammod; Adlam, Anna R. – Developmental Science, 2020
Working memory training has been shown to improve performance on untrained working memory tasks in typically developing children, at least when compared to non-adaptive training; however, there is little evidence that it improves academic outcomes. The lack of transfer to academic outcomes may be because children are only learning skills and…
Descriptors: Outcomes of Education, Short Term Memory, Metacognition, Learning Strategies
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Johann, Verena E.; Karbach, Julia – Developmental Science, 2020
Several studies indicate that executive functions (EF), such as working memory (WM), inhibition or flexibility can be improved by training and that these training-related benefits in WM capacity generalize to reading and mathematical abilities. However, the results of these studies are inconsistent and most of them focused on WM training in…
Descriptors: Game Based Learning, Cognitive Ability, Academic Ability, Elementary School Students
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Rennie, Joseph P.; Zhang, Mengya; Hawkins, Erin; Bathelt, Joe; Astle, Duncan E. – Developmental Science, 2020
We used two simple unsupervised machine learning techniques to identify differential trajectories of change in children who undergo intensive working memory (WM) training. We used self-organizing maps (SOMs)--a type of simple artificial neural network--to represent multivariate cognitive training data, and then tested whether the way tasks are…
Descriptors: Short Term Memory, Teaching Methods, Artificial Intelligence, Cognitive Development
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Wagner, Katie; Chu, Junyi; Barner, David – Developmental Science, 2019
How do children acquire exact meanings for number words like three or forty-seven? In recent years, a lively debate has probed the cognitive systems that support learning, with some arguing that an evolutionarily ancient "approximate number system" drives early number word meanings, and others arguing that learning is supported chiefly…
Descriptors: Numbers, Number Concepts, Children, Semantics
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Piccolo, Luciane R.; Merz, Emily C.; Noble, Kimberly G. – Developmental Science, 2019
A positive school climate has been found to support mental and physical health, academic achievement and social adjustment among youth. However, links between school climate and brain structure have not been investigated to date. In this study, we investigated whether school climate was associated with executive function (EF) and brain structure…
Descriptors: Educational Environment, Correlation, Brain, Executive Function
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