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Knauer, Heather A.; Kariger, Patricia; Jakiela, Pamela; Ozier, Owen; Fernald, Lia C. H. – Developmental Science, 2019
In many low- and middle-income countries, young children learn a mother tongue or indigenous language at home before entering the formal education system where they will need to understand and speak a country's official language(s). Thus, assessments of children before school age, conducted in a nation's official language, may not fully reflect a…
Descriptors: Multilingualism, African Languages, Rural Areas, English (Second Language)
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Jasinska, Kaja K.; Wolf, Sharon; Jukes, Matthew C. H.; Dubeck, Margaret M. – Developmental Science, 2019
Literacy is a powerful tool against poverty, leading to further education and vocational success. In sub-Saharan Africa, schoolchildren commonly learn in two languages--African and European. Multiple early literacy skills (including phonological awareness and receptive language) support literacy acquisition, but this has yet to be empirically…
Descriptors: Literacy, Multilingualism, Phonological Awareness, African Languages
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Willoughby, Michael T.; Piper, Benjamin; Oyanga, Arbogast; Merseth King, Katherine – Developmental Science, 2019
Most of what is known about the association between children's executive function (EF) and school readiness skills is derived from research conducted in Western countries. We tested whether these associations were evident in a middle-income country context. Participants were 1,480 children, aged 4-7¬†years old, who participated in an endline…
Descriptors: Foreign Countries, Executive Function, Early Childhood Education, School Readiness