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Sabhlok, Aditi; Malanchini, Margherita; Engelhardt, Laura E.; Madole, James; Tucker-Drob, Elliot M.; Harden, Kathryn Paige – Developmental Science, 2022
Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a heterogeneous disorder that is highly impairing. Early, accurate diagnosis maximizes long-term positive outcomes for youth with ADHD. Tests of executive functioning (EF) are potential tools for screening and differential diagnosis of ADHD subtypes. However, previous research has been…
Descriptors: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Executive Function, Children, Adolescents
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de Mooij, Susanne M. M.; Dumontheil, Iroise; Kirkham, Natasha Z.; Raijmakers, Maartje E. J.; van der Maas, Han L. J. – Developmental Science, 2022
The ability to monitor and adjust our performance is crucial for adaptive behaviour, a key component of human cognitive control. One widely studied metric of this behaviour is post-error slowing (PES), the finding that humans tend to slow down their performance after making an error. This study is a first attempt at generalizing the effect of PES…
Descriptors: Electronic Learning, Educational Technology, Educational Games, Error Patterns
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Rizzo, Michael T.; Green, Emily R.; Dunham, Yarrow; Bruneau, Emile; Rhodes, Marjorie – Developmental Science, 2022
Racism remains a pervasive force around the world with widespread and well documented harmful consequences for members of marginalized racial groups. The psychological biases that maintain structural and interpersonal racism begin to emerge in early childhood, but with considerable individual variation--some children develop more racial bias than…
Descriptors: Social Behavior, Behavior Standards, Racial Bias, Racial Discrimination
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Lum, Jarrad A. G.; Clark, Gillian M. – Developmental Science, 2022
Procedural memory functioning in developmental language disorder (DLD) has largely been investigated by examining implicit sequence learning by the manual motor system. This study examined whether poor sequence learning in DLD is present in the oculomotor domain. Twenty children with DLD and 20 age-matched typically developing (TD) children were…
Descriptors: Developmental Disabilities, Language Impairments, Sequential Learning, Incidental Learning
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Hoffmann, Ferdinand; Grosse Wiesmann, Charlotte; Singer, Tania; Steinbeis, Nikolaus – Developmental Science, 2022
Childhood is marked by profound changes in prosocial behaviour. The underlying motivational mechanisms remain poorly understood. We investigated the development of altruistically motivated helping in middle childhood and the neurocognitive and -affective mechanisms driving this development. One-hundred and twenty seven 6-12 year-old children…
Descriptors: Altruism, Children, Preadolescents, Helping Relationship
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Forsberg, Alicia; Guitard, Dominic; Adams, Eryn J.; Pattanakul, Duangporn; Cowan, Nelson – Developmental Science, 2022
We explored the causal role of individual and age-related differences in working memory (WM) capacity in long-term memory (LTM) retrieval. Our sample of 160 participants included 120 children (6-13-years old) and 40 young adults (18-24 years). Participants performed a WM task with images of unique everyday items, presented at varying set sizes.…
Descriptors: Long Term Memory, Short Term Memory, Individual Differences, Age Differences
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Fosco, Whitney D.; Meisel, Samuel N.; Weigard, Alexander; White, Corey N.; Colder, Craig R. – Developmental Science, 2022
Studies of reward effects on behavior in adolescence typically rely on performance metrics that confound myriad cognitive and non-cognitive processes, making it challenging to determine which process is impacted by reward. The present longitudinal study applied the diffusion decision model to a reward task to isolate the influence of reward on…
Descriptors: Adolescents, Rewards, Behavior, Reaction Time
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Sullivan, Jessica; Alvarez, Joseph; Goldstein, Blair – Developmental Science, 2022
Understanding symbols requires going beyond what they literally "are," and figuring out what they're intended to communicate. For example, a drawing of a bird (or the word "bird") could refer to a particular bird, a species, etc… The interpreter must decide between these intended meanings. We ask how children go beyond the…
Descriptors: Preschool Children, Inferences, Pragmatics, Ambiguity (Context)
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Meng, Xiangyun; Sun, Chen; Du, Boqi; Liu, Li; Zhang, Yuxuan; Dong, Qi; Georgiou, George K.; Nan, Yun – Developmental Science, 2022
A long-standing question in developmental science is how the neurodevelopment of the brain influences cognitive functions. Here, we examined the developmental change of resting EEG power and its links to vocabulary acquisition in school-age children. We further explored what mechanisms may mediate the relation between brain rhythm maturation and…
Descriptors: Brain, Sleep, Cognitive Development, Vocabulary Development
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Leshin, Rachel A.; Lei, Ryan F.; Byrne, Magnolia; Rhodes, Marjorie – Developmental Science, 2022
From early in development, race biases how children think about gender--often in a manner that treats Black women as less typical and representative of "women in general" than White or Asian women. The present study (N = 89, ages 7-11; predominately Hispanic, White, and multi-racial children) examined the generalizability of this…
Descriptors: Racial Bias, Gender Bias, Children, Childrens Attitudes
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Moriguchi, Yusuke – Developmental Science, 2022
A theoretical distinction exists between the cool and hot aspects of executive function (EF). At the neural level, cool EF may be associated with activation in the lateral prefrontal cortex and the anterior cingulate cortex, whereas the orbitofrontal cortex may play a key role in hot EF. However, some recent studies have shown that young children…
Descriptors: Executive Function, Brain Hemisphere Functions, Preschool Children, Spectroscopy
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Mitsven, Samantha G.; Perry, Lynn K.; Tao, Yudong; Elbaum, Batya E.; Johnson, Neil F.; Messinger, Daniel S. – Developmental Science, 2022
Over half of US children are enrolled in preschools, where the quantity and quality of language input from teachers are likely to affect children's language development. Leveraging repeated objective measurements, we examined the rate per minute and phonemic diversity of child and teacher speech-related vocalizations in preschool classrooms and…
Descriptors: Preschool Children, Phonemic Awareness, Oral Language, Predictor Variables
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Yang, Yang; Zuo, Zhentao; Tam, Fred; Graham, Simon J.; Li, Junjun; Ji, Yuzhu; Meng, Zelong; Gu, Chanyuan; Bi, Hong-Yan; Ou, Jian; Xu, Min – Developmental Science, 2022
Abundant behavioral studies have demonstrated high comorbidity of reading and handwriting difficulties in developmental dyslexia (DD), a neurological condition characterized by unexpectedly low reading ability despite adequate nonverbal intelligence and typical schooling. The neural correlates of handwriting deficits remain largely unknown;…
Descriptors: Foreign Countries, Brain, Cognitive Processes, Handwriting
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McClay, Elise K.; Cebioglu, Senay; Broesch, Tanya; Yeung, H. Henny – Developmental Science, 2022
Infant-directed speech (IDS) is phonetically distinct from adult-directed speech (ADS): It is typically considered to have special prosody--like higher pitch and slower speaking rates--as well as unique speech sound properties, for example, more breathy, hyperarticulated, and/or variable consonant and vowel articulation. These phonetic features…
Descriptors: Child Language, Phonetics, Mothers, Foreign Countries
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Yang, Xin; Naas, Ragnhild; Dunham, Yarrow – Developmental Science, 2022
When seeking to explain social regularities (such as gender differences in the labor market) people often rely on internal features of the targets, frequently neglecting structural and systemic factors external to the targets. For example, people might think women leave the job market after childbirth because they are less competent or are better…
Descriptors: Children, Childrens Attitudes, Abstract Reasoning, Sex
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