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Kalashnikova, Marina; Goswami, Usha; Burnham, Denis – Developmental Science, 2018
Dyslexia is a neurodevelopmental disorder manifested in deficits in reading and spelling skills that is consistently associated with difficulties in phonological processing. Dyslexia is genetically transmitted, but its manifestation in a particular individual is thought to depend on the interaction of epigenetic and environmental factors. We adopt…
Descriptors: Mothers, Infants, At Risk Persons, Dyslexia
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vanMarle, Kristy; Chu, Felicia W.; Mou, Yi; Seok, Jin H.; Rouder, Jeffrey; Geary, David C. – Developmental Science, 2018
Children's understanding of the quantities represented by number words (i.e., cardinality) is a surprisingly protracted but foundational step in their learning of formal mathematics. The development of cardinal knowledge is related to one or two core, inherent systems--the approximate number system (ANS) and the object tracking system (OTS)--but…
Descriptors: Number Systems, Cognitive Mapping, Longitudinal Studies, Preschool Children
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Zhao, Xin; Chen, Ling; Maes, Joseph H. R. – Developmental Science, 2018
Response inhibition is crucial for mental and physical health but studies assessing the trainability of this type of inhibition are rare. Thirty-nine children aged 10-12 years and 46 adults aged 18-24 years were assigned to an adaptive go/no-go inhibition training condition or an active control condition. Transfer of training effects to…
Descriptors: Responses, Inhibition, Control Groups, Transfer of Training
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Creel, Sarah C.; Weng, Mengxing; Fu, Genyue; Heyman, Gail D.; Lee, Kang – Developmental Science, 2018
Young children learn multiple cognitive skills concurrently (e.g., language and music). Evidence is limited as to whether and how learning in one domain affects that in another during early development. Here we assessed whether exposure to a tone language benefits musical pitch processing among 3-5-year-old children. More specifically, we compared…
Descriptors: Tone Languages, Preschool Children, Thinking Skills, Intonation
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Negen, James; Heywood-Everett, Edward; Roome, Hannah E.; Nardini, Marko – Developmental Science, 2018
Using landmarks and other scene features to recall locations from new viewpoints is a critical skill in spatial cognition. In an immersive virtual reality task, we asked children 3.5-4.5 years old to remember the location of a target using various cues. On some trials they could use information from their own self-motion. On some trials they could…
Descriptors: Spatial Ability, Recall (Psychology), Age Differences, Task Analysis
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Stavans, Maayan; Baillargeon, Renée – Developmental Science, 2018
Two experiments examined whether 4-month-olds (n = 120) who were induced to assign two objects to different categories would then be able to take advantage of these contrastive categorical encodings to individuate and track the objects. In each experiment, infants first watched functional demonstrations of two tools, a masher and tongs (Experiment…
Descriptors: Infants, Eye Movements, Visual Stimuli, Task Analysis
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van Laarhoven, Thijs; Keetels, Mirjam; Schakel, Lemmy; Vroomen, Jean – Developmental Science, 2018
Individuals with developmental dyslexia (DD) may experience, besides reading problems, other speech-related processing deficits. Here, we examined the influence of visual articulatory information (lip-read speech) at various levels of background noise on auditory word recognition in children and adults with DD. We found that children with a…
Descriptors: Dyslexia, Language Processing, Speech Communication, Sensory Integration
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Perniss, Pamela; Lu, Jenny C.; Morgan, Gary; Vigliocco, Gabriella – Developmental Science, 2018
Most research on the mechanisms underlying referential mapping has assumed that learning occurs in ostensive contexts, where label and referent co-occur, and that form and meaning are linked by arbitrary convention alone. In the present study, we focus on "iconicity" in language, that is, resemblance relationships between form and…
Descriptors: Sign Language, Linguistic Input, Child Language, Semiotics
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West, Gillian; Vadillo, Miguel A.; Shanks, David R.; Hulme, Charles – Developmental Science, 2018
Impaired procedural learning has been suggested as a possible cause of developmental dyslexia (DD) and specific language impairment (SLI). This study examined the relationship between measures of verbal and non-verbal implicit and explicit learning and measures of language, literacy and arithmetic attainment in a large sample of 7 to 8-year-old…
Descriptors: Dyslexia, Language Impairments, Young Children, Verbal Learning
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Broadbent, Hannah J.; White, Hayley; Mareschal, Denis; Kirkham, Natasha Z. – Developmental Science, 2018
Multisensory information has been shown to modulate attention in infants and facilitate learning in adults, by enhancing the amodal properties of a stimulus. However, it remains unclear whether this translates to learning in a multisensory environment across middle childhood, and particularly in the case of incidental learning. One hundred and…
Descriptors: Incidental Learning, Multisensory Learning, Children, Attention Control
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Perszyk, Danielle R.; Ferguson, Brock; Waxman, Sandra R. – Developmental Science, 2018
The power of human language rests upon its intricate links to human cognition. By 3 months of age, listening to language supports infants' ability to form object categories, a building block of cognition. Moreover, infants display a systematic shift between 3 and 4 months--a shift from familiarity to novelty preferences--in their expression of…
Descriptors: Premature Infants, Language Acquisition, Cognitive Ability, Child Development
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Creel, Sarah C. – Developmental Science, 2018
How and when do children become aware that speakers have different accents? While adults readily make a variety of subtle social inferences based on speakers' accents, findings from children are more mixed: while one line of research suggests that even infants may be acutely sensitive to accent unfamiliarity, other studies suggest that 5-year-olds…
Descriptors: Dialects, Pronunciation, Social Cognition, Learning Processes
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Mangardich, Haykaz; Sabbagh, Mark A. – Developmental Science, 2018
Although we know much about the conditions under which children demonstrate selective social learning, we have a limited understanding of the cognitive mechanisms by which children's selectivity manifests. Here, we report findings from a brain electrophysiological (ERP) study designed to determine the extent to which words presented by ignorant…
Descriptors: Children, Socialization, Semantics, Brain
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Margolis, Amy E.; Davis, Katie S.; Pao, Lisa S.; Lewis, Amy; Yang, Xiao; Tau, Gregory; Zhao, Guihu; Wang, Zhishun; Marsh, Rachel – Developmental Science, 2018
Verbal--spatial discrepancies are common in healthy individuals and in those with neurodevelopmental disorders associated with cognitive control deficits including: Autism Spectrum Disorder, Non-Verbal Learning Disability, Fragile X, 22q11 deletion, and Turner Syndrome. Previous data from healthy individuals suggest that the magnitude of the…
Descriptors: Verbal Ability, Spatial Ability, Autism, Pervasive Developmental Disorders
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Wilkey, Eric D.; Cutting, Laurie E.; Price, Gavin R. – Developmental Science, 2018
The development of math skills is a critical component of early education and a strong indicator of later school and economic success. Recent research utilizing population-normed, standardized measures of math achievement suggest that structural and functional integrity of parietal regions, especially the intraparietal sulcus, are closely related…
Descriptors: Mathematics Instruction, Mathematics Tests, Mathematics Achievement, Mathematics Skills
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