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Fasih, Tazeen; Patrinos, Harry A.; Shafiq, M. Najeeb – Current Issues in Comparative Education, 2021
In this study, we develop a conceptual framework that explains the reasons behind a widening of the gaps in private rates of return to university education during an economic crisis such as COVID-19. Next, we report stylized facts on the private rates of return to university education before and after economic crises in Indonesia, Pakistan, and…
Descriptors: Economic Impact, Economic Factors, COVID-19, Pandemics
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Shafiq, M. Najeeb – Current Issues in Comparative Education, 2010
This article first provides an economic framework for understanding how an economic crisis affects children's educational outcomes; this framework shows that there are both negative (harmful) effects and positive (beneficial) effects on educational outcomes. A review of the empirical evidence suggests that the negative effects are typically…
Descriptors: Educational Objectives, Outcomes of Education, Educational Attainment, Block Grants