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Johnson, Karen E.; Jordan, Stefanie Rehn; Poehner, Matthew E. – Critical Inquiry in Language Studies, 2005
Much of the research on the effects of tests on foreign and second-language classrooms has examined the impact or washback effect that commercial/institutional language tests, such as the TOEFL, have on teachers' instructional practices (Hughes, 1998; Wall & Alderson, 1993). Using a case study methodology, this study uncovered the ways in…
Descriptors: Second Language Instruction, Language Tests, High Stakes Tests, Language Variation