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Szymendera, Scott D. – Congressional Research Service, 2020
The Public Safety Officers' Benefits (PSOB) program provides cash benefits to federal, state, and local law enforcement officers; firefighters; employees of emergency management agencies; and members of emergency medical services agencies who are killed or permanently and totally disabled as the result of personal injuries sustained in the line of…
Descriptors: Police, Professional Personnel, Fire Protection, Emergency Medical Technicians
Hegji, Alexandra; Collins, Benjamin – Congressional Research Service, 2020
The Higher Education Act of 1965 (HEA; P.L. 89-329, as amended) authorizes programs and activities to provide support to individuals who are pursuing a postsecondary education and to institutions of higher education (IHEs). During the 116th Congress, the House Committee on Education and Labor marked up and ordered to be reported the College…
Descriptors: Educational Legislation, Federal Legislation, Higher Education, Educational Finance
Back, Christine J.; Hsin, JD S. – Congressional Research Service, 2019
The last several years have seen renewed debate over the role that race plays in higher education--a debate over "affirmative action." The report first considers "affirmative action" in its original sense: the "mandatory" race-conscious measures that the federal courts have imposed on "de jure" segregated…
Descriptors: Affirmative Action, Equal Protection, Higher Education, Federal Courts
Hegji, Alexandra – Congressional Research Service, 2019
Title IV of the Higher Education Act (HEA; P.L. 89-329), as amended, authorizes programs that provide financial assistance to students to attend certain institutions of higher education (IHEs). In academic year (AY) 2016-2017, 6,760 institutions were classified as Title IV eligible IHEs. Of these IHEs eligible to participate in Title IV programs,…
Descriptors: Higher Education, Federal Legislation, Educational Legislation, Student Financial Aid
Hegji, Alexandra – Congressional Research Service, 2019
The recent closure of multiple large, proprietary (or private, for-profit) institutions of higher education (IHEs) has brought into focus the extent to which a postsecondary student's education may be disrupted by a school closure. However, even in instances of a small IHE's closure, student concerns remain the same. Concerns include the…
Descriptors: School Closing, Colleges, College Students, Student Loan Programs
Cole, Jared P. – Congressional Research Service, 2019
Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 prohibits federally funded programs, activities, and institutions from discriminating based on race, color, or national origin. In its current form, Title VI remains largely unchanged since its adoption. Unlike the Civil Rights Act's better known and more heavily litigated provisions, Title VI is concerned…
Descriptors: Civil Rights Legislation, Federal Legislation, Racial Discrimination, Financial Support
Lewis, Kevin M. – Congressional Research Service, 2019
As overall student loan indebtedness in the United States has increased over the years, many borrowers have found themselves unable to repay their student loans. Ordinarily, declaring bankruptcy is a means by which a debtor may discharge--that is, obtain relief from--debts he is unable to repay. However, Congress, based upon its determination that…
Descriptors: Student Loan Programs, Debt (Financial), Loan Default, Federal Legislation
Granovskiy, Boris; Hegji, Alexandra – Congressional Research Service, 2019
The majority of federal assistance for disaster management is made available from the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), as authorized under the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act (Stafford Act: P.L. 93-288). The public assistance available under the Stafford Act largely provides funds for disaster relief…
Descriptors: Natural Disasters, Federal Aid, Elementary Secondary Education, Postsecondary Education
Dragoo, Kyrie E.; Cole, Jared P. – Congressional Research Service, 2019
Often the biggest transition for students with disabilities and their families is from the supports and services provided in the preschool-12th grade (P-12) public education system to a college or university. At the P-12 level, three main federal laws impact students with disabilities: the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA),…
Descriptors: Students with Disabilities, Elementary Secondary Education, Postsecondary Education, Transitional Programs
Dortch, Cassadria; James, Nathan – Congressional Research Service, 2019
In 1994, Congress passed and President Clinton signed the Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act of 1994 (P.L. 103-322), which, among other things, made prisoners ineligible for Pell Grants. However, concerns about the financial and social costs of the growing prison population combined with concerns about the recidivism rate of released…
Descriptors: Federal Aid, Grants, Institutionalized Persons, Eligibility
Skinner, Rebecca R.; Riddle, Wayne – Congressional Research Service, 2019
The funding of public elementary and secondary schools in the United States involves a combination of local, state, and federal government revenues. State and local governments generally provide over 90% of the revenue available for public elementary and secondary education on an annual basis, with the federal government providing the remainder.…
Descriptors: Educational Finance, Financial Support, Elementary Secondary Education, State Aid
Shohfi, Kyle D. – Congressional Research Service, 2019
A 2014 study conducted by the National Center for Education Statistics within the U.S. Department of Education (ED) found that 53% of public elementary and secondary schools need to spend money on repairs, renovations, and modernizations to put their onsite buildings in good overall condition. The study estimated that the nationwide spending…
Descriptors: Elementary Secondary Education, Educational Finance, Costs, Expenditures
Dragoo, Kyrie E. – Congressional Research Service, 2019
Part C (Infants and Toddlers with Disabilities) of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA, P.L. 108-446) authorizes a formula grant program for infants and toddlers with disabilities (ages birth through two) and their families. A general purpose of these grants is to aid states in developing and implementing "a statewide,…
Descriptors: Disabilities, Educational Legislation, Equal Education, Federal Legislation
Billings, Kara Clifford; Aussenberg, Randy Alison – Congressional Research Service, 2019
The federal child nutrition programs provide assistance to schools and other institutions in the form of cash, commodity food, and administrative support (such as technical assistance and administrative funding) based on the provision of meals and snacks to children. The programs provide financial support and/or foods to the institutions that…
Descriptors: Nutrition, Food Service, Lunch Programs, Breakfast Programs
Smole, David P. – Congressional Research Service, 2019
The William D. Ford Federal Direct Loan (Direct Loan) program makes several types of federal student loans available to individuals to assist them with financing postsecondary education expenses. This report presents a comprehensive overview of the terms and conditions that apply to federal student loans made through the Direct Loan program. It…
Descriptors: Higher Education, Student Loan Programs, Student Financial Aid, Federal Regulation
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